Table of Contents
Subtitle: The Four Unification Theories of Science
This article on “the great year” begins with this memorable quote by Stephen Hawkings:
However, if we discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable by everyone, not just by a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we should know the mind of God.
1687 and the First Unification Theory: The Year of Physics
Science is filled with many memorable years, and we celebrate some. However, the most memorable years are the ones in which science experienced the thrill of unification, when two formerly unrelated aspects of the universe are unified as one.
One of such memorable year of unification is 1687, when Sir Isaac Newton published “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” otherwise called the Principia. In the Principia Newton accomplished the first unification of science.
If you are not new to this blog, you would have known that I usually refer to the Principia for one primary reason, which is that it was in the Principia Newton pointed out and attempted to define absolute, metaphysical space and time.
Before the Principia, Galileo and others had given us a force description of free fall and science had begun its march towards the physical understanding of the universe. However, science lacked a unified framework and some core general principles.
It was in the Principia Newton laid the groundwork for our physical understanding of gravity and for the unification of terrestrial and celestial mechanics. He gave us a clear physical description of the physical quantities of physics and a general description of force which extended Galileo’s description to all accelerating bodies.
Newton made us realize that gravity is a universal force in the universe and that it follows the inverse square law. This simple description of gravity still holds true even till today. The year 1687 was indeed the year of physics.
Even though he could not describe the mechanism for gravitational interactions, he was quite able to give account according to quantitative science of the effects of gravity, from the motion of planetary bodies to the movement of tides.
In 1687, he also laid down his three laws of motion. Newton’s three laws of motion have been pivotal in physics ever since then. And despite the 20th-century revolutions of quantum mechanics and relativity, physical concepts such as momentum and force still retain their Newtonian descriptions in both theories.
From 1687 onwards, man saw the predictive power of Newton’s theory. It was used to predict independently the existence of, as of that time, the non-currently observed planet Neptune by French astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph and British astronomer John Couch Adams.
The predicted existence of Neptune was necessary to give account for the motion of Uranus which could not be explained by the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn. Also, the Principia published in 1687 set the background for the industrial revolution across Europe.
It was as though Newton’s laws opened the portal to man’s physical understanding of the universe. This, to me, will forever be the legacy of Newton’s laws and the memory of 1687 which gave us the first unification theory of science.
1885 and the Second Unification Theory: The Year of Light
After 1687, it would be until 1885 before another unification theory will emerge again in science. A Scottish scientist called Clerk Maxwell was able to show through his paper titled: “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” that the electric field and the magnetic field were components of light, and so light is an electromagnetic wave.
Michael Faraday in his practical investigation of light had intuitively come to the conclusion that light was some sort of “electromagnetic wave”, but he couldn’t prove it mathematically until Clerk Maxwell came along.
Young Clerk Maxwell
Maxwell proved that light travels in space as an electromagnetic wave and that it travels at a constant speed denoted as c which equals 299792458 m/s. Before Faraday and Maxwell man did not know the electromagnetic nature of light and we owe the second unification theory for this insight.
The first unification of Newton hadn’t resolved the nature of light, and so it was progressive to have had the responsibility fall on the second unification theory of Clerk Maxwell. So, 1885 was also a memorable year for science like 1687. The year 1885 was the year of light.
In the “Dynamical Theory” Maxwell accomplished the second unification of science, and the second unification theory produced the revolution of radio communication. It set the background for the practical utilization of light for the communication of information and data from one place to another in space.
Maxwell’s great contribution to science was celebrated by Albert Einstein who on the centenary of Maxwell’s birthday, described Maxwell’s unification theory as the “most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton”
As it would turn out, Maxwell’s unification theory had a tremendous impart on theoretical physics in the 20th century. This is what brings us to the third unification of science.
1905 and the Third Unification Theory: The Miracle Year
Another of such memorable years in science is 1905 which is popularly called the “miracle year.” It was in this year that Einstein resolved the conflict between the first and the second unifications of science.
Prior to 1905, there was a controversy or disagreement between Newton’s theory of mechanics and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. What was this disagreement? The disagreement was centered around the nature of light. Maxwell in his “… Dynamical Theory of Electromagnetic Fields” had arrived at the startling conclusion that the speed of light is constant regardless of the state of motion of an observer.
This didn’t agree with the Newtonian or classical concept of relative speeds which is apparently in harmony with our observation of the motion of bodies. You may not consider Maxwell’s conclusion startling until you realize how uncommon this property of light is.
When you move towards a car also moving towards you, the relative speed between you and the car increases, and when you move away from the car which is moving towards you, the relative speed between you and the car decreases.
For the first case, the car would seem to move faster, while for the second case, the car would seem to move slower. Now, let’s replace the car with a ray of light. For this case, you will realize that regardless of whether you move towards or away from the ray of light, the speed of light remains constant. You cannot observe any relative change in the speed of light.
So, for the first case of relative motion between you and the car, the car does not move at a constant speed satisfying Newton’s laws, while for the second case of relative motion between you and a ray of light, the speed of light does not change satisfying Maxwell’s laws. So, how do we reconcile this? Why is the speed of light constant?
The experimental proof of Maxwell’s description of light also came from the famous Michelson-Morley experiment which sought to detect the speed of light as it moves in the (classical) aether. The aether as at that time was thought to be the medium that transported light waves.
However, results from this experiment proved that the speed of light is constant and that the classical notion of the aether did not exist. It was in an attempt to explain the reason for the constancy of the speed of light that the modern theory of relativity was birthed.
Einstein published five papers in 1905 and one of the papers “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” resolved the discord between Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory which was centered on the nature of light.
How did Einstein resolve this conflict? Simple. He just stated as the second thesis in the paper that “the speed of light is constant for all inertial reference frames.” With this thesis Einstein dismissed the existence of the aether and proceeded to justify the constancy of light’s speed as being due to the transformations of (physical) space and time.
Some scientists have since contended that Einstein’s bold thesis cannot be a satisfactory resolution of the conflict between Newton’s classical theory and Maxwell’s electromagnetism. They contend that Einstein’s relativity is flawed and that Lorentz’s relativity theory which still preserves the (classical) aether is a correct theory.
Lorentz had earlier than Einstein arrived at similar transformations of space and time, and even the transformation or relativity are named after him, nevertheless, he did so while preserving the notion of the aether. So, the discord between Einstein’s relativity and Lorentz’s relativity is centered on the question: Is light an independent reality or not?
No doubt Einstein’s version was a simpler theory than Lorentz’s theory, but the justification for Einstein’s theory stem simply from the fact that it is true. Light is an independent reality. It moves in absolute space without any assistance from any other supposed field.
To construe or to think of any other field more fundamental than light, and even of gravity, is to go against the true nature of the universe. Einstein established the full-fledged nature of light as the first non-mechanical wave in the universe.
This was noble of him considering the oppositions he faced from physicists deeply stuck in classical physics. Einstein by the thesis of the independent existence of light set the spirit of the modern era of physics. He taught us to fully embrace the fundamental nature of light (even though it was pushed beyond its boundaries in general relativity.)
Einstein had this deep-seated intuition of the independent existence of light more than any other scientists of the modern era of science, and it is for this reason I have a deep personal respect for him. I’m an initiate of true intuition.
So, after the struggle, 1905 was the year Albert Einstein published five papers that revolutionized physics and set us on the march towards modern physics. Einstein’s paper on relativity unified classical mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory by introducing a crucial factor related to the speed of light into the Galilean transformations.
This was the third unification theory of science. However, one of Einstein’s 1905 papers alongside Einstein later paper on general relativity was to set the background for the fourth unification theory. That other paper was on the photoelectric effect.
2017 and the Fourth Unification Theory: The Great Year of Metaphysics
In 1905, Einstein published a paper on the photoelectric effect. This paper sought to explain why light could bounce off electrons from the surface of a metal. In this paper, Einstein had to borrow an idea of Max Planck who had earlier proposed a constant of proportionality associated with black body radiation.
Einstein associated Planck’s constant with the electromagnetic wave. He proposed the discrete nature of light, and proposed that light consists of tiny, massless particles or chunks of energy called “photons”. This approach by Einstein set the foundation of quantum mechanics which associates discreteness with the nature and propagation of light.
Modern scientists began to study the nature of atomic phenomena only as manifestations of discreteness that satisfy or produce Planck’s constant of proportionality. Quantum mechanics became the theory used to describe the micro-world of atoms and particles.
Also, in 1916, Einstein presented an extended version of the relativity of 1905. His 1905 paper on relativity had only dealt with uniform frames, so Einstein wanted to extend the principles of relativity to accelerated frames which he “did” in 1916.
So, he called his 1905 paper on relativity and which deals with uniform frames special relativity, while he called his 1916 paper on relativity which deals with accelerated frames general relativity.
It then resulted, after 1916, that science now had two great theories: The general theory of relativity to describe the world of macro bodies and quantum mechanics to describe the world of micro-bodies or the world of atoms.
This was a great feat accomplished by the scientists of the early 20th century who wanted to take us beyond Newton’s laws while also explaining satisfactorily the new puzzles of science especially the constancy of the speed of light and the nature of black body radiation.
After these two theories were established, scientists began to realize that both theories do not unify. One of the scientists to realize this earliest was a Russian scientist called Matvei Petrovich Bronstein. He is today regarded as the pioneer of quantum gravity.
Matvei Petrovich Bronstein
Even though Einstein after publishing his theory of general relativity had observed that the atom cannot be stable due to gravitational effects as the spinning electrons should collapse into the nucleus.
Einstein, therefore, suggested that: “Due to the intra-atomic movement of electrons, atoms would have to radiate not only electromagnetic but also gravitational energy, if only in tiny amounts. As this is hardly true in nature, it appears that quantum theory would have to modify not only Maxwellian electrodynamics, but also the new theory of gravitation.”
Einstein was suggesting a quantum revision of general relativity. The possibility of this suggestion is the central aim of quantum gravity and it was Bronstein who looked critically at this problem and realize more concretely than anyone before him the inherent difficulty in quantizing gravity.
He realize that since gravity, as described by general relativity, is simply the curvature of space and time, then any theory of quantum gravity must deeply and critically analyze the true nature of space and time.
He is quoted to have said that:
“The elimination of the logical inconsistencies … requires a radical reconstruction of the theory, and in particular, the rejection of a Riemannian geometry dealing, as we have seen here, with quantities which are unobservable in principle, and perhaps also the rejection of our ordinary concepts of space and time, replacing them by some much deeper and nonevident concepts [of space and time.] Wer’s nicht glaubt, bezahlt einen Thaler.“
“The last phrase in German came from a Grimm’s fairy tale: “If you don’t believe, pay a Thaler.” It connoted that Bronstein’s conclusion, however implausible it might seem, was unavoidable.” —Reference: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com
The problem of quantum gravity which seeks to unify the physics of the micro world of atoms with the physics of the macro world of large bodies sets the stage for the fourth unification of science.
And following Bronstein conclusion, it cannot be over-emphasized that the problem of quantum gravity cannot be solved without a major revision of our understanding of space and time.
The whole mystery can be summarised by one simple question: what are space and time? Now, while the resolution of this question is beyond the scope of this article, I want to, however, briefly describe the “much deeper and non-evident concepts of [space and time]” necessary to solve the problem of quantum gravity.
When we look at space and time we are deeply confused and totally in the dark about their description since their true nature does not “come under physical observation.” However, there is a new way.
We cannot define space and time directly, but there is a crucial factor which distinguishes space from time. This crucial factor is inertia. Inertia which we have always thought applies only to accelerated motion goes much deeper into the very fabric of reality.
Now, space is that which flows with regards to inertia, while time is that which flows regardless of inertia. These apparently simple definitions of space and time according to their inextricable relationship with inertia is necessary for your understanding of the universe.
Time is not what our clocks tell us. Whatever can exhibit the property of flow regardless of inertia is true time. Whether inertia is present or not, time flows, but space can never flow without the presence of inertia.
For the resolution of quantum gravity, we really have to reject “our ordinary concepts of space and time.” Physical space and time are not the space and time of quantum gravity. The new theory of quantum gravity is titled “The Theory of the Universe: Absolute Relativity”.
I have decided to dub 2017 the great year because it is the year in which man accomplished the unified field theory. 2017 is the year man attained the unified understanding of the cosmos.
I want you to know that the true theory of quantum gravity really does a “rejection of Riemannian geometry” as Bronstein had suggested and it is not just a blind coincidence. Listen, one of the consequences of the rejection of (classical) aether is the independent existence of light which I pointed out afore is the first non-mechanical wave in the universe.
In the fourth unification, the Riemannian geometry of general relativity is rejected because of the existence of gravi-electromagnetic wave which is the second non-mechanical wave in the universe. The two different non-mechanical waves in the universe force us to describe all domains of the cosmos by only Euclidean geometry.
Special relativity (or electrodynamics) which describes uniform frames was the limit of the fundamental nature of light, when we move over to accelerated frames (or gravi-electrodynamics) the gravi-electromagnetic wave becomes the fundamental wave.
The Theory of the Universe shows us how the two non-mechanical waves in the universe govern the transformation of space and time for both uniform and accelerated motions in the universe.
Absolute relativity by the proposal of the existence of gravi-electromagnetic wave, the second non-mechanical wave in the universe, has unified micro and macro physics producing the greatest unification ever in science.
The problem of unifying science has always been about relativity and not quantum mechanics. The conceptual framework of relativity is more fundamental than quantum mechanics. So the fourth unification addresses the inherent conceptual flaws in modern relativity.
Science has now experienced the eras of four unification theories: Newton’s “Principia”, Maxwell’s “Dynamical Theory”, Einstein’s “Relativity” and Echa’s “Absolute Relativity.” Absolute relativity is the fourth unification theory of science published in 2017 by Echa and Science Inc.
These things I teach you about the universe among other great insights that have come down to us make 2017 “the great year.” Also, I began posting articles in this blog in 2017. The year 2017 is really a memorable year for me and always will be.
2017, New Horizon
2017 is not just a memorable year for Echa and Science, it is also a memorable year for the whole of mankind, for in this year man began to study and investigate the science of the upper ethereal realm. 2017 is the year man “begins to study non-physical phenomena.”
The Theory of the Universe gives us the clear metaphysical description of the metaphysical quantities of metaphysics just as Newton had given us the clear physical description of the physical quantities of physics. So, if 1687 was the great year of physics, then 2017 would be the great year of metaphysics.
The first three unification theories have all been a necessary and progressive march towards the limit of physical science and to the door of metaphysical science. The phenomena we now have to explain are far removed from the boundaries of physical science.
The fourth unification theory completes the break from Newton’s laws began by 20th-century relativity and quantum mechanics. The 20th-century scientific revolution is now complete!
Important concepts such as force and momentum which had retained their original physical descriptions in 20th-century relativity and quantum mechanics have been completely discarded for their metaphysical descriptions.
We can no longer neglect the metaphysical aspects of the cosmos. The fourth unification captures all these metaphysical aspects and provides a clear understanding of the current mysteries of science, and from this year 2017 onwards man shall experience the explanative power of the fourth unification theory.
Just as the Principia opened the portal to man’s physical understanding of the universe, absolute relativity now opens the portal to man’s metaphysical understanding of the universe.
The time of the philosophers has come, and I hope that soon, you and I shall “take part in the discussion” of the true laws of the universe, that soon you and I shall “take part in the discussion” of absolute relativity, which on second thought has already begun.
I remain your friend,
– M. V. Echa