Table of Contents
- 1 Introduction
- 2 What is Gravity
- 3 The Modern and the Post-modern Descriptions of the Einstein’s Elevator Experiment
- 4 Further Exposition and Criticism of the Classical and Modern Descriptions of Gravity
- 5 Prospects
- 6 Summary
– Demystifying Gravity.
If you are new to this blog, I want to welcome you to post-modern physics! Today, and in this very illuminating article, I will be unravelling the mystery of gravity. The question, what is gravity, has puzzle great scientists from Sir Isaac Newton to Einstein and to today’s physicists.
But in this article, I will give you the final answer to this question. I don’t want you to be mystified by nature anymore. I want you to understand all things and gravity is one of them. So, sit tight, you are in for an amazing ride!
What is Gravity
Now, before I proceed to the post-modern description of gravity, let’s review our current understanding of gravity from classical and modern physics. This is so that you can understand our progression in the understanding of this remarkable entity called gravity.
In the Principia, Newton described gravity as a force; he proceeded to inform us that gravity is the force of attraction between two bodies represented by the inverse square law. However, this description or framework failed to explain how gravity operates as even its obvious instantaneous effect on bodies called for an explanation.
In this classical framework of gravity, we find an equivalence principle that can be stated in many ways and which was conceptualized by Einstein himself. He called this equivalence principle the weak equivalence principle WEP, and which states in simple terms that gravitational mass and inertial mass are equal or indistinguishable.
The weak equivalence principle states that gravitational mass and inertial mass are equal.
N.B: We would refer to the above as the classical weak equivalence principle and this is because the post-modern weak equivalence principle is different and it will be what I will apply in this article to enunciate the nature of gravity.
Now, the classical description of gravity lacked the operational principle or description of gravity and this tugged the great spirit of Albert Einstein who provided an alternative description of gravity.
He arrived at a field description of gravity which explains the operation of gravity and also provided a conceptual framework to extend his theory of special relativity. He called this newly realized theory of gravity the general theory of relativity.
This new theory, which in my opinion is fundamentally different from special relativity, informs us that gravity is not actually a force as Newton had thought, but that gravity is a phenomenon which arises due to the curvature of spacetime by matter.
Also, in this modern description of gravity, we find an equivalence principle established by Einstein, which is called the strong equivalence principle SEP, and which states in simple terms that gravitation and acceleration are equal or indistinguishable.
The strong equivalence principle states that gravitation and acceleration are equal.
N.B: We would also refer to the above as the modern strong equivalence principle and this is because the post-modern strong equivalence principle is different and it will be what I will apply in this article to enunciate the nature of gravity.
So, Newton’s framework which describes gravity as a force is founded on the classical weak equivalence principle, while Einstein’s framework which describes gravity as the curvature of spacetime is founded on the modern strong equivalence principle.
Now, despite these two descriptions of gravity, a third description of gravity is once again needed because we have not been able to unify Einstein’s general relativity with quantum mechanics and this problem is an indication of a flaw in our understanding gravity.
These theories of gravity do not really tell us what gravity is and how it behaves in the atom. So, the unification problem of science today requires another description of gravity. Now, what could this new description be? I will tell you.
What is gravity in itself? To make you understand gravity, I will like to lead you from your modern understanding of light to the post-modern understanding of gravity because I want us to have an organic understanding of the universe. In the 20th century, scientists were puzzled by light. Its speed is constant for all reference frames and regardless of how fast you move.
Fortunately, special relativity resolved this crisis by modifying the Galilean transformations, and the remarkable insight that emerged from this modification by special relativity is that light is the speed limit in the universe.
No body, no matter how fast it moves, can travel faster than the speed of light. Now, listen, in the general theory of relativity, we do not find this same realization of light for gravity.
Gravity is akin to light as a limit of motion, but in a different manner, for just as no body can travel faster than the speed of light, so also no body can accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity. So, what is gravity? GRAVITY IS THE ACCELERATION LIMIT OF THE UNIVERSE. Understand this.
NO ACCELERATING BODY CAN ACCELERATE GREATER THAN THE ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY. So, just as light is the speed limit of the universe, so is gravity the acceleration limit of the universe. This new unique insight about gravity emerges from absolute relativity which presents to us the true nature of relativity.
This new post-modern understanding of gravity is also found on another profound equivalence principle in the universe which I refer to as the principle of universal equivalence, and which states that the weak equivalence principle and the strong equivalence principle are equal or indistinguishable.
The universal equivalence principle is the fifth principle among the seven absolute principles in the universe. In Echa & Science, you will be informed about these seven absolute principles that reveal the inner workings of the universe and constitute the pillars of post-modern physics.
The principle of universal equivalence states that the weak equivalence principle and the strong equivalence principle are equal.
WEP = SEP
N.B: It is important to know that the universal equivalence principle has emerged from the modification of the weak and the strong equivalence principles, and it is based on these modifications that I will explain gravity and the universal equivalence principle in this article. So, please read the two linked articles.
Also, it is important to outline these three understanding of gravity that are founded on three equivalence principles in the universe:
- According to classical physics, gravity is a force founded on the weak equivalence principle
- According to modern physics, gravity is the curvature of spacetime founded on the strong equivalence principle
- According to post-modern physics, gravity is the acceleration limit of the universe founded on the universal equivalence principle.
Absolute relativity which reveals the third and true essence of gravity is the true conceptual framework for understanding the universe. The universe recognizes the motion of light and also the motion of gravity as being precedent over the motion of matter.
Light and gravity are the traffic limits of the cosmos, and this my dear friend is the grand realization that emerges from The Theory of the Universe. I suggest you get your own copy and become one of the post-modern physicists.
The Essence of Gravity
Importantly, from the foregoing, you are informed about the acceleration of gravity. Listen, I did not refer to the acceleration due to gravity which we all know about from classical physics and modern physics, but to the acceleration of gravity itself which is not currently known.
The first stands as an explicit effect of the latter. This is the primary distinction between the post-modern description of gravity and those of classical and modern physics.
You may wonder, what is the important result of this premise? I want to promptly inform you that the absence of the acceleration of gravity in all of today’s science has prevented us from the true field description of gravity.
Therefore, take note of this distinction between the acceleration of gravity and the acceleration due to gravity. This is crucial if you are going to understand what follows.
Also, with this post-modern understanding of gravity, you may be wondering what the importance of general relativity is? Einstein extended special relativity to general relativity by the remarkable realization that there are two distinct equivalence principles in the universe.
By distinguishing between these two equivalence principles, Einstein took part in setting the stage for post-modern physics. It was because of this distinction that I was able to know that I was staring at an equivalence principle 3 months after I had begun writing The Theory of the Universe.
Before we proceed to revisit the Einstein’s Elevator Experiment EEE, I would like to tell you what it implies to not be able to accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity. Unlike light, an attempt to accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity is like attempting to run past a track that is expanding at a faster rate than you are running.
Remember that acceleration implies changing velocity, so the velocity of gravity is constantly changing in such a manner that no matter how fast you accelerate, gravity will always accelerate greater than you.
So, while light always maintains an unattainable constant speed for uniformly moving bodies, gravity always maintains an unattainable varying speed or acceleration for all accelerating bodies. Understand this.
The above insight reveals the true essence of gravity which when combined with your current understanding of light as the speed limit of the universe reveal the secret of the unified field.
Now, unlike light, the implication of gravity being the acceleration limit of the universe has important implication for mass, force and time, but in this article, we shall be elucidating the implication for mass only as it is enough to give us a clear grasp of the universal equivalence principle. The diagram below would be used to elucidate this.
How Gravity Accelerates Greater than any Accelerating Body
The above shows an accelerating body with acceleration a trying to accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity g. The acceleration of gravity g and the acceleration a of the body are components of the gravitational factor introduced in this article. Now, the above shows that the acceleration of gravity g exceeds the acceleration a of the accelerating body by the factor gr which I call rest gravity.
This component or factor of the acceleration of gravity called rest gravity gr is related to rest mass and not inertial mass like acceleration a. This will become clear shortly. Thus, the acceleration of gravity explicitly equals the acceleration a of the accelerating body and rest gravity gr. Mathematically, that is,
The above expression which explicitly shows how gravity accelerates greater than any other accelerating body should now be substituted into the Newtonian description of gravity. It is important to realize that we are replacing the acceleration due to gravity in the Newtonian framework with the acceleration of gravity itself.
This is the true modification of Newtonian gravity which should have emerged from general relativity and thus prevent us from having the unification problem of physics today. Thus, applying the above for the mass of the Earth, we would have that,
The equation above is the representation of the universal equivalence principle for mass. It shows us lucidly how the post-modern weak equivalence principle and the post-modern strong equivalence principle are equal.
The weak equivalence principle is represented by the factors on the left-hand side LHS, while the strong equivalence principle is represented by the factors on the right-hand side RHS. The rest mass Mr of the Earth is associated with rest gravity gr, while the inertial mass Mi of the Earth is associated with acceleration a.
The above informs us that because the accelerating body cannot accelerate greater than gravity, it is thus interacting with the inertial mass of the track and not the rest mass of the track contrary to what both classical and modern physics would hypothesize.
It also reveals that rest mass and inertial mass arise in the universe because no body can accelerate greater than gravity. These are crucial as we proceed to the Einstein’s Elevator Experiment.
Author’s Note: The elucidations of gravity in this article proceed from absolute science. However, the quantitative aspect of gravity from relative science is employed to ease understanding and as results of the underlying laws of absolute science.
The Modern and the Post-modern Descriptions of the Einstein’s Elevator Experiment
Now, let’s simply elucidate these equivalence principles. After all, nature is profoundly simple. The Einstein’s Elevator Experiment EEE which exemplifies the modern strong equivalence principle is what I have chosen to use to elucidate these three equivalence principles together.
The Einstein’s Elevator Experiment and the Strong Equivalence Principle
The EEE and the Strong Equivalence Principle
In 1907, Albert Einstein struck upon the idea of the strong equivalence principle. In a thought experiment, he realized that a man accelerating upwards far away from the Earth or any other mass at 9.81 m / s 2 in an enclosed elevator as depicted in the diagram above cannot tell if he is accelerating upwards due to the elevator or if he is at rest in the Earth’s gravitational field. In the diagram above, the purple rectangle indicates that the elevator moves far away from the gravitational influence of any other mass.
The above diagram shows the strong equivalence principle in the special condition when the acceleration a of the elevator equals the acceleration due to gravity g and does not distinguish or make reference to the rest mass Mr and the inertial mass Mi of the Earth.
Also, the diagram above shows that an object b dropped by the observer in the enclosed elevator will appear to accelerate towards the floor of the elevator due to the upward acceleration of the elevator analogous to the case of the same body dropped to the earth if the same observer were at rest on the earth surface.
Thus, the observer in the elevator cannot distinguish between been in the elevator or been at rest in the earth’s gravitational field. This simple realization constitutes the strong equivalence principle which posits that acceleration and gravitation are the same.
Einstein established his theory of general relativity on this realization. Importantly, for the Einstein’s strong equivalence principle, the acceleration of the elevator a and acceleration due to gravity g on the Earth’s surface are equal.
It is quite a different case for the principle of universal equivalence. Also, the strong equivalence principle refers to the mass of the Earth without reference to the two manifestations of mass in the universe, which are rest mass and inertial mass.
This is despite the fact that Einstein’s explanation of the experiment would implicitly allude to gravitational mass and this is because gravitational mass has become refuted by post-modern physics and the universal equivalence principle.
Now, these lapses will be covered as we proceed to the Einstein’s Elevator Experiment and the principle of universal equivalence. This is the very importance of the universal equivalence principle.
The Einstein’s Elevator Experiment and the Universal Equivalence Principle
The EEE and the Universal Equivalence Principle
Importantly, for the universal equivalence principle, the acceleration of the elevator a and rest gravity gr on the Earth’s surface are equal. The concept of acceleration due to gravity has been completely replaced by inertial acceleration. This is because even a body in free fall cannot accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity.
The above diagram depicts the relationship between Einstein’s elevator experiment and the universal equivalence principle. It shows the universal equivalence principle in the special condition when the acceleration a of the elevator equals rest gravity gr, thus the rest mass Mr of the Earth equals the inertial mass Mi.
N.B: The reference to rest mass and not to gravitational mass has come about because of the modification of the weak equivalence principle while the reference to rest gravity and not to gravity has come about because of the modification of the strong equivalence principle.
Now, realizing the equality of the weak and the strong equivalence principles raises a very important question. Can we really isolate the elevator from any mass in the universe as Einstein had supposed? No, we cannot isolate the elevator from mass in any possible way.
One of the crucial metaphysical consequences of the universal equivalence principle is that there cannot be accelerated motion without inertial interaction and there cannot be any form of rest without rest interaction.
This inextricable connection between acceleration and inertial mass will reveal the true nature of black holes, which as I have stated in my previous article are bodies which naturally possess inertial mass and not rest mass like other heavenly bodies. We will discuss this soon.
So, the supposed approximation in general relativity whereby an observer in the elevator accelerates far from any other mass is impossible, for the observer in the elevator can only be assumed to accelerate far away from the presence of any rest mass.
In this case, the elevator inescapably moves away from the inertial mass Mi of the earth and this constitutes inertial interaction. In a more generalized understanding, in whatever direction the elevator moves, it is moving away or falling towards the inertial mass Mi of the Earth and not the rest mass Mr of the Earth. Understand this.
This is evident from the universal equivalence equation below for mass, in that when rest mass Mr equals zero rest gravity gr would equal zero too,
And since a = 9.81 m / s 2, the universal equivalence equation for mass becomes,
Thus, since the elevator interacts with the inertial mass of the Earth, when the object b is dropped in the enclosed elevator, it would fall towards the inertial mass Mi of the earth. And if the elevator moves at an acceleration which is different from 9.81 m / s 2, then it would interact with an inertial mass which is different from the true inertial mass Mi of the Earth. Understand this.
As the figure above shows, the acceleration due to gravity from the modern strong equivalence principle is replaced by rest gravity in the universal equivalence principle. Thus, when the observer is at rest on the Earth surface when its acceleration is zero, it experiences rest gravity and not acceleration due to gravity as the modern strong equivalence principle suggests.
Consequently, the observer experiences the rest mass Mr of the earth and this constitutes rest interaction. This is evident from the universal equivalence equation for mass in that when acceleration a equal zero, inertial mass consequently equals zero too, and we have that,
Now, it can be concluded that the observer at rest experiences the rest mass Mr of the earth or rest interaction, and when the observer moves through the elevator, he experiences the inertial mass of the earth or inertial interaction, and for both cases the observer can’t distinguish between rest interaction and inertial interaction because of the universal equivalence principle.
The universal equivalence principle shows encompassingly that the observer in the elevator cannot distinguish between being at rest on the Earth’s surface and accelerating in the elevator, and also cannot distinguish between the interaction with the rest mass of the Earth and the interaction with the inertial mass of the Earth.
So, the strong equivalence principle still holds but not as a standalone principle without the association of the weak equivalence principle. The weak equivalence principle and the strong equivalence principle are now equal.
This realization can be extended to all free falling bodies and bodies at rest on the Earth surface. All free falling bodies above the Earth surface falls towards the inertial mass of the Earth and not the rest mass of the Earth, while bodies at rest on the Earth’s surface experience the rest mass of the Earth and not the inertial mass of the Earth
The universal equivalence principle is a pervasive and subtle absolute principle of the universe.
Further Exposition and Criticism of the Classical and Modern Descriptions of Gravity
Classical and modern physics have done so much to advance our understanding of gravity. However, there are still wrong premises in our understanding of gravity that we need to get rid of in order to truly understand this entity or phenomenon.
The strong equivalence principle informs us that the man accelerating upwards in the enclosed elevator at 9.81 m / s 2 would not be able to tell if he was simply accelerating by the elevator or if he was at rest on the surface of the Earth.
To the man in the elevator, the sensory experience of these two states of motion is the same. I am stating “sensory experience” so that you will see beyond sensations and realize something remarkable about the universe which the universal equivalence principle reveals.
Absolute relativity informs us that sensational equality does not imply true metaphysical equality, and this has been one of the hidden mysteries of the universe which arises due to the qualitative nature of space and time, and which hopefully, I will elucidate in my future articles.
The universe in so many occasions makes two fundamentally different states of motion appear or sense similar, and Einstein’s Elevator Experiment EEE shows us one of such cases.
Also, while Einstein’s modern description of the elevator experiment attempted to explain the strong equivalence principle, it totally isolates the weak equivalence principle and this shouldn’t be since both equivalence principles are equal. However, we couldn’t have known about the equality of these two principles without modifying them as post-modern physics has done.
They are inseparable. In other words, the EEE does not tell us what form of the mass of the Earth, whether rest mass or inertial mass, applies when the man accelerates in the elevator or when he is at rest on the Earth surface.
The Einstein’s elevator experiment essentially treats mass as mass not taking note of its two fundamental manifestations. These two equivalence principles should never be separated, and while the weak and the strong equivalence principles appear evident, the universal equivalence principle does not.
It is a very subtle principle. I am telling you this because I understand how today’s purely quantitative science has not helped to train our minds to understand subtleties which do not come directly under physical observation.
Digression begins …..
We have become trapped in a cold, rigorous and purely computational science. But the universe we live is not like this. She is warm, subtle and she uniquely blends qualitativeness and quantitativeness in all her manifestations.
Her qualitative essence underlies all our apprehension of sensations, while her quantitative essence underlies our apprehension of proportions. In post-modern physics, we cherish both aspects of the universe.
It is important to let you know that we cannot continue to found science only on what we can measure about the universe because the qualitative aspect of the universe necessary for a complete understanding of the cosmos can only be sensed and not measured.
Sensation and mensuration are two aspects of the universe and both are within the domain of physics, especially post-modern physics.
Digression ends …..
Also, the understanding of gravity as the acceleration limit of the universe returns us to a Euclidean description of gravity and accelerated frames. This realization cannot be incorporated in the Riemannian geometrical framework.
This post-modern description of gravity as the acceleration limit of the universe can only be easily incorporated into the Newtonian framework which describes gravity as a force. Therefore, all that is needed to correct Newton’s gravitational theory is to replace the acceleration due to gravity with the acceleration of gravity itself.
The absence of the acceleration of gravity in the entire edifice of current science has hindered us from arriving at the unified field. For the secret of the unified field is that just as light is the speed limit of the universe so is gravity the acceleration limit of the universe.
Both essences constitute the gravi-electromagnetic wave, the unified field, which shall be discussed soon.
The Mystery of the Unified Field
The essence of the unified field brings us to the futile attempt so far to explain the operations of gravity. Listen, there is no such thing as the single isolated operation of gravity. Remember that I have told you in my previous articles that there are only two non-mechanical waves in the universe.
The electromagnetic wave and the gravi-electromagnetic wave. So, what has been taken as the action of gravity is really the action of gravi-electromagnetic wave which is a superluminal wave.
Gravity never acts alone, it only acts as a component of gravi-electromagnetic wave, and this is why gravity is invisible, unlike light which can exist alone as electromagnetic wave. Understand this. I have presented to you a remarkably simple understanding of gravi-electromagnetic wave in my article on exposing the nature of the universe.
Now, just as light is incorporated in a geometrical framework in special relativity, so is gravi-electromagnetic wave incorporated in a geometrical framework and both geometrical frameworks are Euclidean.
The importance of Euclidean geometry cannot be overemphasized. The universe is fundamentally Euclidean. General relativity shows that uniformly moving frames move in a perfectly Euclidean spacetime, while accelerated frames move in a non-Euclidean spacetime.
This is a wrong premise hindering us from unifying physics. Euclidean geometry is the geometrical harmony of the cosmos. Contrary to general relativity, in absolute relativity, both uniform and accelerated frames follow Euclidean laws. This geometrical harmony of the cosmos is a direct consequence of the existence of two non-mechanical waves in the universe.
Furthermore, general relativity predicted the existence of bodies called black holes which are bodies with intense gravitational fields, such that even light cannot escape from them. This is a very wrong understanding of black holes.
As I have stated, black holes are bodies without rest mass but only inertial mass. This is why they are invisible. They arise because all the revolving heavenly bodies in a galaxy are in inertial interaction with the center of the galaxy just as the observer in the Einstein’s Elevator Experiment is interacting with the inertial mass of the Earth. Be enlightened.
Einstein’s general theory of relativity is untenable in the face of the realization of the principle of universal equivalence. I want you to realize the amazing simplicity of the universe. The universe is simple only because she is subtle.
I am also aware of other predictions of general relativity such as the bending of starlight by matter and the perihelion shift in the orbit of mercury. All these predictions will be explained subsequently, so be on the lookout for my future articles.
With this new understanding of gravity and gravi-electromagnetic wave, I think the time is ripe for mankind to design self-rotating space stations. This venture is particularly important to me as it would mark the beginning of our exploration of the universe as a species.
Since a rotating space station with a rigid center pivot is impossible in space, I am considering an organically rotating space station that would spin just as the heavenly bodies spin. So, let’s just be on the lookout for this!
I have so far been elucidating what gravity really is, which has eluded us since the inception of quantitative science 400 years ago. This article teaches us that gravity is the maximum acceleration of the universe just as light is the maximum speed of the universe. This article informs us that light and gravity are the two traffic laws of the cosmos.
Now, a direct and insightful consequence of this essence of gravity is the universal equivalence principle which unifies the weak equivalence principle and the strong equivalence principle. The universal equivalence principle informs us that these two great equivalence principles of classical and modern physics are equivalent.
So, the post-modern description of gravity is not a total overhaul of our classical and modern understanding of gravity, rather it is a progression of them and this is even as it modifies them. I want to inform you that science is in a very important age when every aspect of the cosmos will be synthesized.
No more disharmony in our understanding of the universe. Now, let’s outline the important insights gained from this article:
- Gravity is the acceleration limit of the universe.
- According to the universal equivalence principle, the weak equivalence principle and the strong equivalence principle are equal.
WEP = SEP
– M. V. Echa