Table of Contents
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Post-modern Quantum Mechanics: Introduction
“… there must be, beyond what is actually known, immense new regions to discover.”
Louis de Broglie
This scientific article, which is the first of its kind in this post-modern era of science, seeks to explicitly lay the foundation of post-modern quantum mechanics. This is necessary because modern quantum mechanics is incomplete being an observer based description of the atomic world, but the new post-modern quantum mechanics presents to us a complete observer-atom based description of the atomic world.
In modern quantum mechanics, crucial entities of the atomic world such as time, light, energy etc are not described according to their true essence in the atomic world. You can read this my article below where I presented my points for the post-modernization of quantum mechanics, and how I intend to go about it.
So, in this article which sets the foundation for observer-atom based quantum mechanics, we will be looking at the conceptual framework of quantum mechanics from two frames. One is the frame of the observer and the other is the frame of the atom.
In other words, quantum phenomena will be investigated as they truly occur in the atomic world and how they are observed differently outside the atom in the frame of an observer. I do this with two hopes.
The first which I have already stated is to post-modernize quantum mechanics, while the second is to increase in some way, anyway, our understanding of the universe. The second reason, is in fact, the impulse of the first and of this great work.
What am I really about to do in this scientific article? I want to take the conceptual framework of quantum mechanics and show you how the equations and interpretations differ for an observer outside the atom and for the particles inside the atom.
We are transforming the currently and solely observer based quantum mechanics to a more complete and ramifying observer-atom based quantum mechanics. We are simply probing the true nature of the universe using quantum mechanics but assisted by the insights from The Theory of the Universe.
There is no doubt that post-modern quantum mechanics will further expose the limits of physical science, for it will truly reveal to us that an observer outside the atom cannot by any known means deal directly with the true nature of the vital aspects of reality as they manifest in the atomic world.
Nevertheless, what can I say? Well, I will say like Einstein that “if we know our limits, we go beyond them.” Let’s first establish post-modern quantum mechanics, and then we would see how we can break the barrier reality has set between the observer and the atom.
In this article which sets the foundation for post-modern quantum mechanics, I will resolve the very crucial and interesting question: what is the nature of time in the atomic world? In other words, how do atomic particles experience time?
Once you understand how time is experienced differently in the atomic world, you will understand all about the atomic world and quantum mechanics. I have discussed this in one of my articles, but in this article, I want to be more explicit.
Also, we will have to delve into absolute science in order to understand the true experience of time in the atomic world. So, we will be dealing with absolute time and when necessary absolute space. In fact, we shall move back and forth between absolute and relative science as permitted by the new scientific method.
Firstly, let me introduce the core principle of post-modern quantum mechanics.
The Second Correspondence Principle
Post-modern quantum mechanics is founded on the second correspondence principle. We have the first correspondence principle which relates the two forms of rest in the universe, and which states that uniform rest and accelerated rest are indistinguishable.
The second correspondence principle relates the principle of inertia with the (strong phase of the) principle of non-inertia, and it states that the principle of inertia and the strong phase of the principle of non-inertia are indistinguishable.
How does this principle apply in post-modern quantum mechanics? The principle of inertia applies exclusively to the observer outside the atom, while the strong phase of the principle of non-inertia applies exclusively to the particles in the atomic world.
The diagram below clearly depicts how the second correspondence principle applies in post-modern quantum mechanics.
Fig. 2: Post-modern physics and the second correspondence principle
The exclusivity of absolute principles is central to post-modern physics, unlike classical and modern physics where principles are indiscriminately thought to apply in all domains of the universe. There are boundaries to the application of principles in the universe.
The principle of inertia which states that uniform rest and uniform motion are indistinguishable only applies to an observer outside the atom, while the principle of non-inertia which states that accelerated rest and accelerated motion are applies only applies to atomic particles.
What the second correspondence principle practically informs us is that just as the observer outside the atom in all conditions of uniform motion cannot sense inertia, so also the atomic particles in all conditions of accelerated motion cannot sense inertia.
So, whatever phenomenon occurs in the atom according to the principle of non-inertia translates to the observer outside the atom as occurring according to the principle of inertia. The observer outside the atom cannot directly observe how events occur in the atomic world according to the principle of non-inertia. This understanding is absolutely fundamental.
There is a real barrier in principle between the observer and the atom. This barrier would have been insurmountable without the second correspondence principle which transforms events occurring inside the atom according to the principle of non-inertia to events as they will occur outside the atom according to the principle of inertia.
Now, let’s move to the description of the true experience of time outside and inside the atomic world.
Time in the Atomic World
In the universe there are two forms of absolute space and also two forms of absolute time, however, something about the experience of absolute time which does not apply to the experiences of absolute space sets the boundary between the observer and the atomic world.
Let’s, first of all, take note that the observer outside the atom is a ponderable body and as such does not have charge, but the atomic particles except for the neutrons have charge. Having this distinction at the back of your mind as I proceed will be very helpful.
Now, the observer can either move in uniform space or accelerated space, and the same is applicable to atomic particles, but they are constrained to only move in accelerated space. They never move in uniform space.
And when we move to absolute time, the observer can also either experience uniform time or accelerated time depending on whether he or she is in uniform motion or accelerated motion. But for atomic particles, they do not experience absolute time as such. Atomic particles experience both forms of time jointly.
Let’s conceptualize this. In the ponderable universe, which is the world of the observer, we have a uni-temporal experience of time. The two forms of time are not experienced jointly, whereas in the electrical universe of atomic particles, we have a di-temporal experience of time.
Let’s just outline and define these two concepts:
Def. 1: Uni-temporal experience refers to the separate experience of the two forms of absolute time.
Def. 2: Di-temporal experience refers to the joint experience of the two forms of time.
These two concepts above illuminate you about the experience of time at a fundamental level, both inside and outside the atom. So, considering the above and the elucidations about the experience of absolute space for the observer and the atom, it can be stated that in the universe the experience of absolute space is always a uni-spatial experience.
To take you further, do you know that even though we have two forms of time, they do not relate dimensionally (or orthogonally) to each other. The two forms of time, unlike absolute space, purely exhibit the aspect of forms and can, therefore, be even imagined to lie on the same plane. Let’s leave this, I will discuss this extensively some other time.
Uni-spatial experience is defined thus:
Def. 3: Uni-spatial experience refers to the separate experience of the two forms of space.
Uni-spatial experience is universal and applies both in the ponderable and electrical universes. I have discussed in this article the distinction between ponderable and electrical bodies with regards to their motion in the two forms of absolute space.
Now, let me explain to you using physical clocks what it means to have a joint experience of the two forms of absolute time, for at least it would be very helpful if we can use the known to attain the unknown.
Below is a diagrammatic representation of the experience of absolute time using clocks:
Fig. 2: How time is truly experienced inside and outside the atomic world
You can see from the above diagram that the observer can only experience uniform time and accelerated time separately and respectively for uniform motion and accelerated motion. However, as shown on the right-hand side, the atomic particle experiences jointly the two forms of time.
What I mean by the experience of time is the relativistic transformation of time due to motion. I also refer to the factor which represents this joint experience of the two forms of time as tau time.
Tau time in post-modern physics simply means the product of the two forms of time. This is the time of the atomic world. Though I have represented metaphysical time using physical time above, I still want you to go beyond your understanding of physical time and realize the new portal of understanding the two forms of metaphysical time opens to you.
You know, looking at the above diagram, you can compare the experience of time outside and inside the atom to ‘unicolar’ and binocular visions. Let’s do a simple experiment in order to assist us in understanding the experience of time outside and inside the atomic world.
Close one of your eyes using any of your palms and look around you. You will realize that you can see with only one eye, obviously, and that you are experiencing ‘unicolar’ vision in which your view range is not so wide. Now, open it and look around you again. You are now experiencing binocular vision, and you have a wider view range.
The observer outside the atom, having uni-temporal experience is having an experience of time that can be compared to your experience of ‘unicolar’ vision, while the atomic particle having bi-temporal experience is having an experience of time that can be compared to your experience of binocular vision.
The difference in the experience of vision when you closed and opened one of your eyes is a picture of the difference between the observer and the atomic particle in their experiences of time.
This analogy is very important, for it will further give you a firm intuitive grasp of the universe and of the atomic world.
Light and Energy in the Atomic World
From this distinction in the experience of time arises two remarkable consequences. The observer outside the atom and the atomic particle no longer see or experience light and energy the same.
To the observer outside the atom, light becomes a constant speeding wave, while to the atomic particle light becomes an accelerating wave. And also to the observer outside the atom energy becomes that in Joules, while to the atomic particle energy becomes that in Joules/s2.
I place these other two consequences above as the results of the difference in the experience of time between the observer and the atomic particle because time is the most fundamental quantity or essence among the three (time, light and gravity).
So, in modern quantum mechanics, the whole idea of light as a wave with a constant speed c and the concept of energy in Joules only apply in the domain of the observer and not inside the atomic world.
Fig. 3: The nature of light and energy outside and inside the atomic world
The true form of quantum mechanics in the atomic world has not been represented. Post-modern quantum mechanics now wants to perform the simple task of translating the equations and interpretations of quantum mechanics as they occur outside the atom to how they occur inside the atom.
The true essence of time, energy and light in the atomic world will be used to transform the equations and interpretations of modern quantum mechanics into their real form inside the atomic world. This is the core mathematical method of post-modern quantum mechanics, which follows the understanding of the second correspondence principle.
Now, in this article, we shall look at the post-modern description of Einstein’s energy equation and Louis de Broglie’s wavelength.
Postmodern Quantum Mechanics: Einstein’s Energy Equation
The Einstein’s energy equation lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It shows us the practical and theoretical importance of the Planck’s constant h. However, post-modern quantum mechanics now informs us that the Einstein’s energy equation based on the energy in Joules and the speed of light c is non-existent in the atomic world.
In the atom, the Einstein’s energy equation should be based on the energy in Joules/s2 and the acceleration of light ac. The diagram below shows you how the mathematical form of Einstein’s energy equation transforms between the atom and the observer outside the atom.
Fig. 4: Einstein’s energy equation outside and inside the atomic world
Outside the atom, the Einstein’s energy equation holds as Einstein had taught us, but inside the atom, it doesn’t. It takes the form such that Ei is energy in Joules/s2, hi is what we shall call the Joule’s constant and fa is tau frequency related to the reciprocal of the product of the two forms of time.
However, tau frequency can be taken in physical science as simply equal to the reciprocal of t2 and not t. In post-modern quantum mechanics, one only needs to have a fundamental understanding of the second correspondence principle in order to know how all the equations of quantum mechanics based on the frame of the observer transforms in the frame of the atom.
This article simply lays the foundation for how you are going to do this, and frankly it is very simple. So, let’s write the Einstein’s energy equation inside and outside the atom:
Remembering that light is a wave with constant speed outside the atom, in the above expression of Einstein’s energy equation outside the atom, Eo is then the energy of the speed of light in Joules, hc is Planck’s constant, and fc is the frequency of light which is related to the speed c and the wavelength λc of light as,
However, inside the atom, Einstein’s energy equation does not take the form above, rather it takes the form presented below,
Remembering that light is an accelerating wave inside the atom, in the above expression of Einstein’s energy equation outside the atom, Ea is then the energy of the acceleration of light in Joules/s2, ha is the Joule’s constant, and fa is the frequency of the acceleration of light which is related to the acceleration ac and the wavelength λa of light as,
I want you to take a good look at equations (1) and (3) and properly understand the essence of Einstein’s energy equation outside and inside the atom. What the observer calls the Planck’s constant hc outside the atom, inside the atom ha is called the Joule’s constant. I call ha Joule’s constant because it is in Joules.
But remember that inside the atom, energy in Joules is not really energy, so ha is just a fundamental constant in Joules, that’s all. Energy Ea in the atom is energy in Joules/s2. This is the true nature of energy in the atomic world.
So, just as Planck’s constant hc is just a fundamental constant outside the atomic world and nothing more, so is Joule’s constant ha just a fundamental constant inside the atomic world and nothing more. The Planck’s constant hc is related to the speed of light c, while the Joule’s constant ha is related to the acceleration of light ac.
The Einstein energy equation outside the atom is that corresponding to the principle of inertia, while the Einstein’s energy equation inside the atom is that corresponding to the principle of non-inertia.
Let’s now move to the description of de Broglie wavelength according to post-modern quantum mechanics
Postmodern Quantum Mechanics: The De Broglie’s Wavelength
In his 1924 PhD thesis, Louis de Broglie postulated the wave nature of particles. It was a “groundbreaking contribution to quantum theory” for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929, “after the wave-like behaviour of matter was first experimentally demonstrated in 1927″.
Absolute relativity already explains why moving particles behave like waves and de Broglie proposal still holds relevance within quantum mechanics which we seek to post-modernize.
However, de Broglie wavelength, as it stands only applies to the observer outside the atom observing a particle in motion. The de Broglie wavelength as it applies to the moving particle frame is different, as I will show you.
Fig. 5: Louis de Broglie
The Louis de Broglie wavelength outside the atom emerges from the equality of the Einstein energy equation (1) above and the rest energy of a body. Let’s simply derive the Louis de Broglie wavelength outside the atom. Now, re-writing the equation (1) above as equation (5), we would have that,
And the rest energy of the observer who is a non-charged body and is outside the atom is,
(It is easy to see why I used the same subscript for both Einstein’s energy equations which is because they are both energy in Joules which applies only outside the atomic world.) Now, if we divide equations (5) and (6), we realize that the wavelength λc of light can be expressed as,
Since we have mass in the above equation, we could substitute the velocity v of a moving particle for the speed of light c in the expression above, and we will have that,
The above equation is the post-modern de Broglie wavelength of the moving particle relative to the observer and if written in relation to momentum it becomes,
Where momentum, p = mv
The above equation is the common expression of de Broglie wavelength. Now, what I want you to know is that the above expression applies only in the frame of the observer observing the moving particle. It does not apply to the frame of the moving particle.
In the frame of the moving particle de Broglie wavelength transforms just as Einstein’s energy equation transforms. Let me show you. In the frame of the particle, Einstein’s energy equation transforms as,
Now the rest energy of the particle which is a charged body is expressed as,
The equation (9) above which was borrowed from The Theory of the Universe informs us that the rest energy of an atomic particle equals its mass times the square of the acceleration of light (and not the speed of light).
I want you to look at equations (6) and (9) because they will inform you about the nature of rest outside and inside the atomic world. Einstein’s rest energy equation does not apply in the atomic world, it only applies outside the atom, to ponderable bodies without charge.
This new insight shows you that the Einstein’s rest energy equation (6) is a consequence of the principle of inertia, while the rest energy equation (9) of atomic particles is a consequence of the principle of non-inertia.
Now, if we divide equation (8) by equation (9), we obtain,
Since we have mass in the above equation, we could substitute the acceleration a of a moving particle for the acceleration of light ac in the expression above, and we will have that,
The above equation is the post-modern de Broglie wavelength of the moving particle relative to itself, and if written in relation to force it becomes,
Where force, F = ma
The equation (10) above is the de Broglie wavelength relative to the particle itself. The figure 6 below shows the de Broglie wavelength as it applies in the observer’s frame and in the particle’s frame.
Fig. 6: Louis de Broglie wavelength outside and inside the atom
Post-modern quantum mechanics forces us to have a re-think of how we understand quantum mechanics. The above shows that to the observer, the moving particle possesses a wavelength λo related to its speed v or momentum p, while to the particle itself, it possesses a wavelength λp related to its acceleration a or force F.
This is because light maintains a constant speed for the observer but accelerates for the particle. The observer observes the motion of the particle according to the principle of inertia, while the particle itself experiences its motion according to the principle of non-inertia.
There is no way the observer and the particle can bridge this divide in principle between their experiences or description of atomic phenomena. This is the new light post-modern physics shines into quantum mechanics.
Post-modern quantum mechanics reveals and respects the respective principles that apply exclusively to the observer and to the atom. This is the new tradition that the second principle of correspondence imposes on us.
Now, though the de Broglie wavelength proves the wave nature of particles or matter, it does not explain why particle behave like waves. For the explanation of the wave nature of particles and also the entire weirdness of quantum mechanics we would have to turn to absolute relativity.
I have explained the double-slit experiment in one of my articles. I will like you to read it. Don’t forget that I made it clear in this article that the true understanding of the cosmos can only be found in absolute relativity which now unifies physics under one overarching conceptual framework.
This article which establishes post-modern quantum mechanics informs you that as an observer, there are aspects of atomic phenomena that you cannot have a direct measurement or experience of. This is because of the fundamental differences in the nature of time, light and energy between you and the atom.
Every experimental method to break this barrier will be futile. Post-modern physics goes further to show us the hidden aspects of quantum mechanics by borrowing some of the concepts of absolute relativity, and surprisingly I am beginning to see how absolute relativity and quantum mechanics can work together.
Now, I have talked about the Joule’s constant in this article, and I told you that the Joule’s constant is to the atom what the Planck’s constant is to the observer. We may never know directly if the Joule’s constant has a different value from the Planck’s constant since post-modern quantum mechanics is more qualitative than modern quantum mechanics.
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So, it is a satisfying kind of knowledge that the mathematical equations and resulting interpretations of quantum mechanics can no longer just be generalized without regards to the qualitative nature of the universe.
The physicist must now realize that though he can understand all things because of absolute relativity, there are still boundaries his tools cannot cross, and phenomena he cannot directly observe because he himself is an inextricable part of nature.
There is no limit, thanks to the science a priori, to what man can understand about the universe, however, there are limits to practical investigation.
Notwithstanding, I will like to drop this crucial possibility: I think that when we fully launch the practical era of post-modern physics, we may begin to explore the qualitative nature of the universe just like we currently explore the quantitative nature of the universe.
This achievement would be very great! No matter what I may say about our limits like I have said afore, I want you to still know that a part of me does not believe in limits when it comes to knowledge, both theoretical and practical knowledge.
The qualitative nature of the universe is just being revealed to us in this post-modern era of physics, so who says that in due time we shall not begin to directly probe or explore the qualitative nature of the cosmos like we do the quantitative nature of the universe.
When this happens, we shall be exploring and influencing directly the interplay of principles and the practical investigation of forms will take full swing. There are possibilities and “immense new regions to discover” in this new era of physics.
We shall all know and shall all become!
– M. V. Echa
Author’s Note: I will implore you to properly understand this article. Also, look at the diagrams and notice their connection, it will help you come to understand the second correspondence principle among other things. Thank you!
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