# Relating Mach’s Principle and the Principle of Universal Equivalence

Table of Contents

**Subtitle**: Further Demystifying Gravity

**Introduction**

In the late 19th century, a scientist name Ernst Mach proposed a scientific or what one would otherwise call an empirical cause for inertia. He proposed his beautiful thesis on the foundation of relative space and time. The results or implications of his proposal would go ahead to “disprove” Newton’s proposal which asserts the existence of absolute space and time.

*What was Mach’s proposal for the origin or cause of inertia?* Mach proposed that inertia arises when bodies move because their motion is inseparably connected to other bodies in the universe.

He was of the opinion that inertia does not arise because of the motion of bodies against immovable absolute space as Newton had earlier contended, but due to the interaction of moving bodies with other bodies in the universe.

This proposal by Ernst Mach is usually referred to as **Mach’s principle**.

Most scientists are of the opinion that Mach’s principle is vague, especially when you realize that there is no method to properly describe this interaction of bodies across the vast expanse of space. The underlying mechanism of Mach’s principle is missing.

And in addition to this, I think that Mach’s principle is vague, as from my study, it makes no clear indication of the kind of mass of the universe that produces these inertial forces. I will discuss this in this article, especially with regards to the universal equivalence principle which is explicit about the kind of mass involved with inertial forces.

Nevertheless, Einstein was deeply motivated by Mach’s principle which he thought that his general theory of relativity satisfies even though some scientists are of the opinion that general relativity does not satisfy Mach’s principle.

So, if today, general relativity does not satisfy Mach’s principle, you and I are left to wonder within ourselves the hidden or undiscovered implication of Mach’s principle for the understanding of the operations of the universe.

This brooding is what brings us to the newfound post-modern principle of universal equivalence. So, *what is the relationship between Mach’s principle and universal equivalence principle?* *What do these two insightful principles have in common?*

What these two principles have in common is that they inform us that bodies in accelerated motion interact with other bodies in the universe. However, while Mach’s principle seeks to explain by this common theme the origin of inertia, the principle of universal equivalence seeks to explain by this common theme why no accelerating body can accelerate greater than gravity.

It is because of the similarity between both principles that I sometimes see **Mach’s principle** as an early form of **the principle of universal equivalence** even though both principles have different bases.

In this article, and in fact in today’s science, what is important with regards to these two principles is to find an explicit and not a vague explanation of how bodies in accelerated motion interact with other bodies in the universe.

In this scientific article and notwithstanding the similarity between Mach’s principle and the universal equivalence principle, I still want to show you how the universal equivalence principle presents a better explanation and why it is the right replacement of Mach’s principle.

So, what is the universal equivalence principle? The universal equivalence principle is the principle that informs us that the weak equivalence principle and the strong equivalence principle are equal. And you must know that the weak and the strong equivalence principles stated are their post-modern modifications and not their former descriptions.

Also, as I have aforestated, the universal equivalence principle arises because no accelerating body whether ponderable (non-charged) or electrical (charged) can accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity. I have talked about this in one of my articles which also discusses the Einstein’s elevator experiment.

This great truth is captured by the gravitational component of the superluminal transformation for accelerating bodies which is mathematically presented as,

To come to the post-modern understanding of gravity, you must understand that we have replaced *the acceleration due to gravity* of classical physics with *the acceleration of gravity* itself which is what *g* symbolizes above. And *a* is the acceleration of a body under investigation and which cannot exceed the acceleration of gravity *g*. Please understand this.

However, in this article, I want to further enlighten you about the implications of the universal equivalence principle for our understanding of the true nature of gravity. We have known from special relativity that no body in uniform motion can travel faster than the speed of light, and this assertion or fact has no consequence in relation to mass, force etc.

But unlike for light, the assertion that no body can accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity has important implications for mass, force etc. which we would now have to investigate. These important implications for mass, force etc. would show us how accelerating bodies interact with other bodies in the universe which is the underlying theme of Mach’s principle.

Let’s begin with the implication of the universal equivalence principle for mass.

**Gravity and Mass**

I must state in a general manner that every accelerating body, in whatever manner it is accelerated, whether by gravity or any other external action, is interacting with the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe and not the rest mass or gravitational mass of other bodies in the universe.

**– N. B:** I will explain why my reference to rest mass shortly.

The above assertion becomes insightful when you realize that since the beginning of our investigation of gravity and its effects on bodies, we have always thought that bodies undergoing free fall above the Earth surface are falling towards the gravitational mass of the Earth.

No, this is a wrong understanding of the operation of gravity or the phenomenon of free fall. Bodies undergoing free fall above the Earth surface are falling towards the inertial mass of the Earth and not the gravitational mass or the rest mass of the Earth.

The above results because of the universal equivalence principle, or as one may otherwise state, it results because the free-falling body cannot accelerate greater than gravity.

Now, before we proceed to discuss gravity and the universal equivalence principle, I must let you know that post-modern physics has done away with gravitational mass and has replaced it with rest mass in the post-modern weak equivalence principle. This is the reason for my reference to rest mass above.

I will like you to read the linked article above in order to know why this is so and I want you to know that as I proceed to discuss the universal equivalence principle, I do so using the terms and findings of post-modern physics.

**Mass and the Moon’s Frame**

The figure below represents a diagrammatic explanation of the universal equivalence principle for mass as it applies to the free fall of the Moon above the Earth surface.

**The Gravitational Interaction between Earth and the Moon According to Post-modern Physics**

What the universal equivalence principle reveals to us is that the interaction between the Earth and the Moon is not as simple as classical physics would want us to think. There are non-evident operations beyond the perception of our physical senses going on in the interaction between the Earth and the Moon which the universal equivalence principle exposes.

In the above figure which shows the interaction between the Earth and the Moon from the reference frame of the Moon, the mathematical symbol** ≠ _{n}** is used to denote that from the frame of reference of the Moon, the Earth’s rest mass

**M**and inertial mass

_{r}**M**are “not necessarily equal”.

_{i}However, in the reference frame of the Moon itself, its rest mass **m _{r}** and inertial mass

**m**are equal. Now, from the frame of the Moon, the universal equivalence equation for mass and for its motion about the Earth is represented as,

_{i}How do we interpret the above equation? In the above expression, the sum of *g _{rm}* and

*a*gives us the acceleration of gravity in the Moon’s frame. Mathematically,

_{m }Recall that in post-modern physics we have replaced the concept of acceleration due to gravity with the acceleration of gravity itself. The Newtonian inverse square law applies directly to the operations of gravity itself. Understand this, for it is the only flaw in Newton’s description of gravity.

Listen, in the two above expressions *a _{m }*is the free fall acceleration of the moon

*g*and is the proportion by which the acceleration of gravity

_{rm }*g*exceeds the acceleration of the moon. I most times refer to

_{m }*g*as rest gravity.

_{rm }And from the universal equivalence equation for mass above, *g _{rm }*is related to the rest mass

**M**of the Earth, while

_{r }*a*is related to the inertial mass

_{m }**M**

_{i}**of the Earth.**

_{ }So, from the universal equivalence equation for mass, we are informed that the Moon with acceleration *a _{m }*is revolving or free-falling around the inertial mass

**M**of the Earth and not the rest mass

_{i}**M**of the Earth, and by extension, the moon is interacting with the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe.

_{r }Also, this is evidently contrary to what classical physics informs us. Classical physics informs us that the Moon is revolving around the gravitational mass of the Earth, but post-modern physics dismisses the existence of gravitational mass and replaces it with rest mass while it informs us that the Moon is interacting with the inertial mass of the Earth.

The Moon and even the observer on the Moon are in **inertial interaction** with the Earth and not **rest interaction**.

Now, when something happens and by some external action the Moon’s acceleration changes from that of its free fall acceleration, the inertial mass **M _{i}** of the Earth changes correspondingly and relative to the moon.

This is why I have stated mathematically that relative to the Moon, the rest mass **M _{r }**and inertial mass

**M**of the Earth are “not necessarily equal” denoted by the mathematical symbol ≠

_{i}_{n}.

The rest mass **M _{r }**and the inertial mass

**M**of the Earth are only equal when the Moon undergoes free fall, for any change in the Moon’s free fall acceleration causes a corresponding change in the Earth’s inertial mass

_{i}**M**relative to the Moon.

_{i}To further understand this, let’s say the mean acceleration of the Moon around the Earth is 0.0028 m/s^{2} which corresponds to the inertial mass of the Earth and which is equal to the Earth’s rest mass. Now, if this mean acceleration changes suddenly to maybe 1.22 m/s^{2}, the inertial mass of the Earth corresponding to this change becomes,

Where R = *59.8× 10 ^{23 }m is the mean distance between the Earth and the moon and G=59.8× 10 ^{23 }m ^{3 }Kg^{-1} s^{-2 }is Newton’s gravitational constant. Thus,*

Relative to the Moon, the inertial mass of the Earth has shifted from or become greater than the average rest value which remains *59.8× 10 ^{23}*

*Kg*. It doesn’t matter whether the mean distance alters, what the above critically reveals is that, while rest mass is always constant, inertial mass

**M**is not always constant and has the potential to vary and become different from the proportion of rest mass

_{i }**M**.

_{r}And when the new radial distance becomes fully established, we must know that the rest mass of the Earth cannot account or provide the acceleration of the Moon at this new radius. The new radius and the new acceleration of the moon would always determine or correspond to the new inertial mass of the Earth and not the rest mass of the Earth.

The Moon cannot interact or account for the rest mass **M _{r }**of the Earth because it cannot accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity

*g*. The rest mass

_{m}**M**of the Earth is related to

_{r }*g*which is the constant proportion by which the acceleration of gravity

_{rm }*g*exceeds the acceleration of the Moon

_{m}*a*.

_{m}The rest mass **M _{r }**and inertial mass

**M**of the Earth are only equal relative to the Moon during free fall. So, in general, what we call or identify as free fall, represents the condition in which rest mass equals inertial mass.

_{i }However, the observer at rest on the Earth surface is experiencing the rest mass of the Earth and not the inertial mass of the Earth. This is evident from the expression above for the acceleration of gravity *g _{m }*which shows that when acceleration

*a*equals zero, the acceleration of gravity

_{m }*g*would equal

_{m }*g*which is rest gravity

_{rm }*.*The observer at rest on the Earth’s surface is experiencing

**rest interaction**.

You should realize that if a scientist were the observer at rest on the Earth, he cannot by any physical means know that he is experiencing the rest mass of the Earth while the revolving moon is experiencing the inertial mass of the Earth.

This new knowledge reveals to you the power of absolute science, which is more potent in establishing the true understanding of gravity than relative science. Ascend.

**Mass and the Earth’s Frame**

The universal equivalence principle is vice-versa. Thus, having understood the universal equivalence principle from the frame of the Moon, let’s now investigate the universal equivalence principle for mass from the frame of the Earth as shown in the figure below:

The Gravitational Interaction between Earth and the Moon According to Post-modern Physics

In the above figure which shows the interaction between the Earth and the moon from the reference frame of the Earth, the mathematical symbol** ≠ _{n}** is used to denote that from the frame of reference of the Earth the Moon’s rest mass

**m**and inertial mass

_{r}**m**are “not necessarily equal”.

_{i}However, in the reference frame of the Earth itself, its rest mass **M _{r}** and inertial mass

**M**are equal. Now, from the frame of the Earth, the universal equivalence equation for mass and for its motion towards the Moon is represented as,

_{i}In the above expression, the sum of *g _{rM}* and

*a*gives us the acceleration of gravity in the Earth’s frame. Mathematically,

_{M }Listen, in the two above expressions, *a _{M }*is the free fall acceleration of the Earth towards the moon,

*g*and is the proportion by which the acceleration of gravity

_{rM }*g*exceeds the acceleration of the Earth. From the above

_{M }*g*is rest gravity. And from the universal equivalence equation for mass above,

_{rM }*g*is related to the rest mass

_{rM }**m**of the Moon, while

_{r }*a*is related to the inertial mass

_{M }**m**

_{i}**of the Moon.**

_{ }So, from the universal equivalence equation for mass, we are informed that the Earth with acceleration *a _{M }*is free falling or gravitating towards the inertial mass

**m**of the Moon and not the rest mass

_{i}**m**of the Moon, and by extension, the Earth is interacting with the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe.

_{r }This is evidently contrary to what classical physics informs us as said in the above discussion of mass and the Moon’s frame. Thus, just like the moon is in inertial and not rest interaction with the Earth, so is the Earth in inertial and not rest interaction with the moon.

The Earth also cannot interact or account for the rest mass **m _{r }**of the Moon because it cannot accelerate greater than the acceleration of gravity

*g*. The rest mass

_{M}**m**of the Moon is related to

_{r }*g*which is the constant proportion by which the acceleration of gravity

_{rM }*g*exceeds the acceleration of the Earth

_{M}*a*.

_{m}Now, if something happens and by some external action, the Earth’s acceleration *a _{M}* changes from that of its free fall acceleration, the inertial mass

**m**of the Moon changes correspondingly and relative to the Earth. This is why I have stated mathematically that relative to the Earth the rest mass

_{i}**m**and inertial mass

_{r }**m**of the Moon are “not necessarily equal” denoted by the mathematical symbol ≠

_{i}_{n}.

The rest mass **m _{r }**and the inertial mass

**m**of the Moon are only equal when the Earth undergoes free fall, any change in the Earth’s free fall acceleration causes a corresponding change in the moon’s inertial mass

_{i}**m**relative to the Earth.

_{i}However, the observer at rest on the Moon surface is experiencing the rest mass of the Moon and not the inertial mass of the Moon. This is evident from the expression above for the acceleration of gravity *g _{M }*which shows that when acceleration

*a*equals zero, the acceleration of gravity

_{M }*g*relative to the Moon

_{M }*would equal*

_{ }*g*which is rest gravity

_{rM }*.*The observer at rest on the Moon’s surface is experiencing

**rest interaction**.

So, if a scientist who is not an adept of absolute science were at rest on the Moon surface, he cannot by any physical means know that he is experiencing the rest mass of the Moon while the gravitating Earth is experiencing the inertial mass of the moon. Ascend my dear friend, and for coming to Echa and Science, you are privy to the darkest secrets of the cosmos of which the universal equivalence principle is one of them.

**Elucidation for Mass**

The afore elucidations of the consequences of the universal equivalence principle explicitly inform us that bodies in accelerated motion are interacting with the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe. This is unlike Mach’s principle which implicitly informs us that bodies in accelerated motion interact with the rest or the abolished gravitational mass of other bodies in the universe.

So, I want you to realize that both principles inform us that accelerating bodies interact with other bodies in the universe but on a different basis.

The universal equivalence principle explicitly informs us that every accelerating body is interacting with the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe.

Before we go to a very special case of the universal equivalence principle in relation to mass, let’s also see how this beautiful insight or illumination captured in the above quote applies to force.

Importantly, you must realize that the interaction between the Earth and the Moon and even the variation of the inertial mass of the Earth and that of the Moon are overseen by (the acceleration of) gravity.

I want you to have the frame of reference of these interactions right. Mass exists because of gravity and not the other way round. So gravity can change or alter mass as it deems fit during the interaction of bodies according to the principle of universal equivalence. Understand this profound truth.

**Gravity and Force**

Now, just like with the implication of the universal equivalence principle for mass, for force:

I must state in a general manner that every accelerating body, in whatever manner it is accelerated, whether by gravity or another external action, is accelerated by the inertial force relatable to the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe and not the rest mass of other bodies in the universe.

Bodies undergoing free fall above the Earth surface are falling due to inertial force and towards the inertial mass of the Earth and not due to rest force and towards the rest mass of the Earth. This results because of the universal equivalence principle, or as one may otherwise state, this results because the free-falling body cannot accelerate greater than gravity.

This new understanding will become clear to you in the next sub-sections.

**Force and the Moon’s Frame**

The figure below represents a diagrammatic explanation of the universal equivalence principle for force as it applies to the free fall of the Moon above the Earth:

**The Gravitational Interaction between Earth and the Moon According to Post-modern Physics**

In the above figure which shows the interaction between the Earth and the Moon from the reference frame of the Moon, the mathematical symbol** ≠ _{n}** is used to denote that from the frame of reference of the Moon the Earth’s rest force

**F**and inertial force

_{r}**F**are “not necessarily equal”.

_{i}However, in the reference frame of the Moon itself, its rest force **f _{r}** and inertial force

**f**are equal. Now, from the frame of the Moon, the universal equivalence equation for force and for its motion about the Earth is represented as,

_{i}**N. B**: The author uses **m** to designate the mass of the Moon because in the moon’s frame both its rest and inertial masses are equal. So, **m** could represent either of them.

How do we interpret the above equation? In the above expression, the sum of *g _{rm}* and

*a*gives us the acceleration of gravity in the Moon’s frame. Mathematically,

_{m }Listen, in the two above expressions *a _{m }*is the free fall acceleration of the Moon

*g*and is the proportion by which the acceleration of gravity

_{rm }*g*exceeds the acceleration of the Moon. And from the universal equivalence equation for force above,

_{m }*g*is related to the rest force

_{rm }**F**which is also

_{r }**relatable to the rest mass**

_{ }**M**of the Earth, while

_{r }*a*is related to the inertial force

_{m }**F**which is also relatable to the inertial mass

_{i }**M**

_{i}**of the Earth.**

_{ }So, from the universal equivalence equation for force, we are informed that the Moon with acceleration *a _{m }*is experiencing inertial force

**F**relatable to the inertial mass

_{i }**M**of the Earth and not the rest mass

_{i}**M**of the Earth, and by extension, the Moon is interacting with the inertial force relatable to the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe.

_{r }**N. B:** In the elucidation of gravity, **rest force** refers to the force relatable to rest mass, while **inertial force** is the force relatable to inertial mass. Please have this understanding.

Now, if something happens and by some external action the Moon’s acceleration changes from that of its free fall acceleration, the inertial force **F _{i}** of the Earth changes correspondingly and relative to the Moon. This is why I have stated mathematically that relative to the Moon, and just like for mass, the rest force

**F**and inertial mass

_{r }**F**of the Earth are “not necessarily equal” denoted by the mathematical symbol ≠

_{i}_{n}.

It can even be stated assertively that regardless of whatever other means the Moon’s acceleration changes, it only changes due to the change in the inertial force **F _{i }**relatable to the inertial mass

**M**of the Earth. This important insight reveals to us the origin of inertial force. Inertial force for motion comes from the continuum itself. Bodies don’t just move because they can, but because the universe itself provides the necessary inertial force. Let this absolute understanding illuminate you.

_{i}The rest force **F**_{r }relatable to the rest mass** M _{r} **of the Earth

**and the inertial force**

_{ }**F**

_{i }relatable to the inertial mass

**M**of the Earth are equal relative to the Moon only when the Moon undergoes free fall, any change in the Moon’s free fall acceleration causes a corresponding change in the Earth’s inertial force

_{i}**F**relative to the Moon.

_{i}So, in general, what we call or identify as free fall represents the condition in which rest force equals inertial force.

However, the observer at rest on the Earth surface is experiencing the force relatable to the rest mass of the Earth and not the inertial mass of the Earth. This is evident from the expression above for the acceleration of gravity *g _{m }*which shows that when acceleration

*a*equals zero, the acceleration of gravity

_{m }*g*would equal

_{m }*g*which is rest gravity

_{rm }*.*The observer at rest on the Earth’s surface is experiencing

**rest interaction**.

The observer cannot by any physical means know that he is experiencing the rest force of the Earth while the revolving moon is experiencing the inertial force of the Earth. Be enlightened.

**Force and the Earth’s Frame**

The figure below represents a diagrammatic explanation of the universal equivalence principle for force as it applies to the gravitation of the Earth towards the Moon:

**The Gravitational Interaction between Earth and the Moon According to Post-modern Physics**

In the above figure which shows the interaction between the Earth and the Moon from the reference frame of the Earth, the mathematical symbol** ≠ _{n}** is used to denote that from the frame of reference of the Earth the Moon’s rest force

**f**and inertial force

_{r}**f**are “not necessarily equal”.

_{i}However, in the reference frame of the Earth itself, its rest force **F _{r}** and inertial force

**F**are equal. Now, from the frame of the Earth, the universal equivalence equation for force and for its motion towards the Moon is represented as,

_{i}**N. B**: The author uses **M** to designate the mass of the Earth because in the Earth’s frame both its rest and inertial masses are equal. So, **M** could represent either of them.

How do we interpret the above equation? In the above expression, the sum of *g _{rm}* and

*a*gives us the acceleration of gravity in the Earth’s frame. Mathematically,

_{m }Listen, in the two above expressions *a _{M }*is the free fall acceleration of the Moon

*g*and is the proportion by which the acceleration of gravity

_{rM }*g*exceeds the acceleration of the Moon.

_{M }And from the universal equivalence equation for force above, *g _{rM }*is related to the rest force

**f**which is also

_{r }**relatable to the rest mass**

_{ }**m**of the Moon, while

_{r }*a*is related to the inertial force

_{M}_{ }**f**which is also relatable to the inertial mass

_{i }**m**

_{i}**of the Moon.**

_{ }So, from the universal equivalence equation for force, we are informed that the Earth with acceleration *a _{M }*is experiencing inertial force

**f**relatable to the inertial mass

_{i }**m**of the moon and not the rest mass

_{i}**m**of the moon, and by extension, the Earth is also interacting with the inertial force relatable to the inertial mass of other bodies in the universe.

_{r }Now, if something happens and by some external action, the Earth’s acceleration changes from that of its free fall acceleration, the inertial force **f _{i}** of the Moon changes correspondingly and relative to the Earth.

Also, just like for the Moon, it should be asserted that regardless of whatever means the Earth’s acceleration changes, it only changes due to the change in the inertial force **f _{i }**relatable to the inertial mass

**m**of the Moon.

_{i}The rest force **f**_{r }relatable to the rest mass** m _{r} **of the Moon and the force

**f**

_{r }relatable to the inertial mass

**m**of the Moon are equal relative to the Earth only when the Earth undergoes free fall, any change in the Earth’s free fall acceleration causes a corresponding change in the Moon’s inertial force

_{i}**f**relative to the Earth.

_{i}However, the observer at rest on the Moon surface is experiencing the force relatable to the rest mass of the Moon and not the inertial mass of the Moon. This is evident from the expression above for the acceleration of gravity *g _{M }*which shows that when acceleration

*a*equals zero, the acceleration of gravity

_{m }*g*would equal

_{M }*g*which is rest gravity

_{rM }*.*The observer at rest on the Moon’s surface is experiencing

**rest interaction**.

The observer cannot by any physical means know that he is experiencing the rest force of the Moon while the gravitating Earth is experiencing the inertial force of the Moon. Be enlightened.

**Elucidation for Force**

The afore elucidations of the consequences of the universal equivalence principle for force explicitly informs us that bodies in accelerated motion are interacting with the inertial force relatable to inertial mass of other bodies in the universe.

The universal equivalence principle explicitly informs us that every accelerating body accelerates due to the inertial force of the universe.

**The Origin of Black Holes**

I want to use the investigation of mass in the reference frame of the Moon to further expose to you the nature of black holes which is only a mystery in relative science. In absolute science, the nature of black holes is known.

Looking at the universal equivalence equation for mass, it becomes very easy to understand the nature of black holes. In the above diagram, the Earth has been suddenly removed from existence and the Moon is moving away in a straight line. Now, let’s look at the equation below:

To remove the Earth only causes the removal of the rest mass M_{r} of the Earth and not the inertial mass M_{i }of the Earth. This physical condition is represented mathematically as,

So, even in the absence of any other rest mass and consequently rest force in the universe, the Moon can still be influenced by only the inertial force relatable to the inertial mass of the Earth.

The Moon can still move in accelerated motion even in the absence of any rest mass (and in absolute relativity, this is obvious since to move in accelerated motion is simply to move in accelerated space and not necessarily to carry force).

The Moon by whatever trajectory it takes in the absence of the Earth is moving around a body with only inertial mass, and if it accelerates carrying the free fall acceleration that it would normally have around the visible Earth, then we may say that the centre body possesses the same inertial mass as that of the Earth.

This center body with only inertial mass is called a black hole. A black hole is a heavenly body that does not have rest mass, it only possesses inertial mass. We can, therefore, say that every body in a free trajectory such as that of the Moon above is moving around a black hole located at some other point in the universe, whether identified or not. This is the origin of black holes.

There cannot be rest without **rest interaction** and there cannot be acceleration without **inertial interaction**. All the heavenly bodies in a galaxy are in free trajectories around a black hole which does not have rest mass.

They are all moving due to the inertial force that is relatable to the inertial mass of the black hole at the center of galaxies. Black holes are really pervasive heavenly bodies usually found at the center of galaxies.

I am aware of the proposition of general relativity that black holes are bodies with almost infinite mass such that light cannot escape from them. No, this is far from the truth of what black holes are. Friend, we now have the unified field theory, thus we should understand better.

Even if a black hole has a very small inertial mass it would still be invisible because it does not have rest mass and not because spacetime is so curved around it such that light cannot escape from it. The objects we call black holes have mystified us for so long because we haven’t known what it means for a body to not have rest mass.

In my other article, I exposed the fundamental consequence of bodies without rest mass but only inertial mass. My dear enlightened one, read the article so that you will further understand these heavenly bodies called black holes.

**Crucial Discussion**

This article describes aspects of the true operations of acceleration by exposing to us the true nature of the underlying insight that every accelerating body interacts with other bodies in the universe. This insight or proposition underlies both Mach’s principle and the principle of universal equivalence.

Since Mach’s principle deals with inertial forces, it has no connection with gravity. This is very true in a classical sense and this is where the universal equivalence principle supersedes Mach’s principle, for it deals with gravity.

However, the universal equivalence principle deals with gravity in a different sense than expected in that the universal equivalence principle deals with gravity as an acceleration limit of the universe.

Gravity comes into the explanations of the universal equivalence principle as an acceleration limit of all accelerating bodies in the universe, and by this simple procedure, the universal equivalence principle informs us of two fundamental interactions of matter, which are rest interaction and inertial interaction.

The universal equivalence principle captures both forms of interaction and this approach has been used in this article to elucidate the hidden, non-evident interactions between the Earth and the Moon.

Thus, we find out that Mach’s principle and the universal equivalence principle are only superficially similar to the universal equivalence has more details about its propositions than Mach’s principle. Their only similarity and which this article emphasizes is in how they assert that the origin of the inertial forces of a body is due to other matter in the universe.

How and why this is true, and in fact, the mechanism of these interactions are what the universal equivalence principle points out even more than Mach’s principle. This is why I see Mach’s principle as the predecessor of the universal equivalence principle.

The newly revealed form of interaction called inertial interaction is what captures the underlying theme of Mach’s principle that accelerating bodies interact with other bodies in the universe, even though this is not the origin of inertia.

The universal equivalence principle informs us that the Moon in its frame is interacting or revolving around the inertial mass of the Earth and not the rest mass of the Earth. And that the Earth in its frame is gravitating or moving towards the inertial mass of the Moon and not the rest mass of the Moon.

These insights from the universal equivalence principle apply to the motion of the planets about the Sun. The planets in their respective frames are revolving around the inertial mass of the Sun and not the Sun’s rest mass, while the Sun in its frame is also gravitating towards the inertial mass of the planets.

This newly revealed form of interaction called inertial interaction is the mystery of black holes which are bodies with only inertial mass. I want what you have just seen and read to gladden your heart, for after 100 years since general relativity we now have a new understanding of gravity!

Listen, we couldn’t have known all these by looking at what our tools tell us. All these are results of absolute science, which is the science a priori. The time has come for us to explore the universe through absolute science which captures the entire subtlety of the universe and contains the true understanding of the operations of the universe.

Don’t hesitate to comment on this blog and to also share this new found knowledge with your friends using any of the share buttons below.

From enlightenment to enlightenment.

Your guide,

– M. V. Echa

**References**

what is the acceleration of the moon? – MadSci Network