The Photoelectric Effect: Resolving the Paradoxical Nature of Light

Introduction

At the heart of quantum mechanics lies the paradoxical question, is light a wave or a particle? Now, I have told you on this blog that light in its unreducable essence is a limit of inertia.

However, light behaves or manifests as a wave that spreads in space and also like a particle in other cases. I therefore see these opposite aspects of light proposed by quantum mechanics as a behaviour of light and not its true essence.

So, let’s rephrase the central question of quantum mechanics to: does light behave like a wave or a particle? Now, light takes only one of these manifestations. Besides, what we call particles with mass are nodal regions in the universe which is a standing gravi-electromagnetic field.

So, even if according to quantum mechanics we suppose that light is a mass-less particle called the photon, the question becomes: how can we picture the existence of such in our universe?

Now, in the double slit experiment, light behaves like a wave in that it passes through two suits, but in the photoelectric effect, light behaves like a particle capable of knocking out charged particles from an atom.

However, light has proven to be a wave in many experiments than it has proven to be a particle. This brings us to the photoelectric effect which is one of the few experiments which according to quantum mechanics proves that light is a particle.

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Author’s Note: This article shall proceed to resolve the paradoxical nature of light in quantum mechanics according to our understanding of the lower relative science and not the higher absolute science. 

The Photoelectric Effect and Quantum Mechanics

How did it all begin? In 1905, Albert Einstein published five revolutionary scientific papers, and in one of these papers he attempted to describe the photoelectric effect borrowing some of Max Planck’s ideas. In his paper on the photoelectric effect, he proposed that light consisted of massless particles called photons that knock out particles from the atom following the energy equation below,

E =hf

Where E is energy in Joules, h is the Planck’s constant and f is frequency in s-1

The above energy equation is at the foundation of quantum mechanics, and it was what set Einstein as one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics. So, it is evident that the idea of light as a particle became set with Einstein explanation of the photoelectric effect.

Now, with this understanding, our mind comes to the conclusion that light probably travels as a wave, but during the photoelectric effect it somehow assumes the behaviour of a particle, or it probably travels through space as a wave and also as a particle and manifests either depending on the kind of experiment we wish to perform. Is the nature of light independent or dependent on our apparatus or what?

This paradox and its accompanying questions arise because of the wrong explanation of the photoelectric effect. These paradoxes and questions are truly unrelated to the true behaviour of light.

So, what is the true behaviour of light? Let me gladly inform you that light behaves only like a wave and never like a particle of any kind, especially the kind quantum mechanics proposes.

My dear enlightened one, if light behaves like a wave and not like a particle, how then does the wave nature of light explain the photoelectric effect? I will show you shortly, but before I do, I would want you to realize that this second option has the potential to rid us of the lack of understanding of the atomic world, and also completely expose the error which lies at the very foundation of quantum mechanics.

The resolution of this paradox cannot be found in quantum mechanics but in relativity, and I mean absolute relativity. So, I shall be resolving the paradoxical nature of light according to quantum mechanics by comparing special relativity with absolute relativity.

This is so that I can show you the wrong assumptions you already have about light from your understanding or study of modern physics.

Let’s begin!

The Photoelectric Effect and Special Relativity

The figure below shows you how you understand the photoelectric effect according to the principles of special relativity. In the figure below, you can see light travelling as a wave with constant speed c outside the atom, and when inside the atom and on approaching a free electron moving in the short dashed arc as depicted in the figure it becomes a photon which is a massless particle according to quantum mechanics.

From the diagram, light as a photon still moves at constant speed c.

The Photoelectric effect and special rela

Special Relativity and the Photoelectric Effect

Now, our depiction above informs us that light is a wave outside the boundary between the atom and the outside world, however, when inside the atom it acts like a particle, especially during the depicted photoelectric effect. We are applying the central idea of quantum mechanics to the modern relativistic explanation of photo-electricity.

N.B: The boundary between the outside world and the atom is depicted as the dashed ellipse around the atom.

Also, you can see that both outside the boundary and inside the boundary, light maintains its associated physical quantities which are 4-energy E and 4-momentum p, even though it alters its behaviour from being a wave to being a particle.

As shown above, the modern relativistic interpretation of the photo-electric effect informs us that light approaches or strikes the free electron as a photon carrying 4-energy E in Joules and 4-momentum p

It is stated mathematically in special relativity as,

E^{2}= p^{2}\; c^{2}

This crucial interpretation above is the way we understand the photoelectric effect according to the principles of modern relativity, and I want you to know today that it is a wrong understanding of this very beautiful phenomenon.

Special relativity in conjunction with quantum mechanics make us think that light, alongside being a wave, is a particle that carries only momentum and not any other physical quantity. This is crucially why we have failed for the past 100 years to properly interpret this experiment. We would resolve this in the next section.

The Photoelectric Effect and Absolute Relativity

Now, let me gladly inform you about the true interpretation of this experiment according to the principles of post-modern relativity. 

The Photoelectric effect and Absolute relativity

Absolute Relativity and the Photoelectric Effect

The figure above shows you how you should understand the photoelectric effect according to the principles of absolute relativity. In the diagram above, you can see light traveling as a wave with constant speed c outside the atom, but when inside the atom, and on approaching a free electron moving in the short dashed arc as depicted in the figure light becomes an accelerating wave with acceleration ac.

Light as a wave with constant speed is indicated in the figure as a wave with constant amplitude and wavelength, but light as an accelerating wave inside the atom is indicated by the wave diagram with varying amplitude and wavelength.

This thesis is central to the understanding of the operations of the universe. Light travels as a constantly speeding wave outside the atom, but inside the atom, light travels as an accelerating wave. As depicted in the figure above, this dissimilarity in the behavior of light is the boundary between the outside world and the atomic world.

This results in something remarkable, in that light carries 4-energy E and 4-momentum p outside the atom, but inside the atom, light carries 5-energy Ea in Joules / second 2 and force F [1]. 

So, contrary to special relativity explained above, light maintains its wave behaviour outside and inside the atom, but changes its associated physical quantities outside and inside the atom. Please, let this insight enlighten you.

So, outside the atom, light carries 4-energy and 4-momentum represented mathematically as,

E^{2}= p^{2}\; c^{2}

But inside the atom, light carries 5-energy in J / s2  and force F represented as,

{E_{a}}^{2}= F^{2}\;{a_{c}}^{2}

In the above equation, ac is the mathematical symbol for the acceleration of light.

Author’s Note: Both equations above have been derived from first principles in absolute relativity.

Now, remember what Newton taught us. Newton through his second law of motion taught us that a body changes its state of motion when impressed by an external force. This explains the photoelectric effect. Light being an accelerating wave in the atom carries force by which it changes the state of motion of the electron.

During photo-electricity light approaches the free electrons carrying force and it impacts this force on the free electrons. This post-modern explanation of photoelectricity introduces for the first time in scientific history the true and profound understanding of the atomic world which quantum mechanics cannot provide.

This is because quantum mechanics is an inherently flawed theory from its inception.

According to absolute relativity, light is a wave that can carry momentum and force.Click To Tweet

Furthermore, the new 5-energy Ea in Joules/ second 2 is accelerating energy, and it is the newly discovered form of energy that light carries inside the atom. More so, it exposes the true nature of dark energy which I have informed you is no longer a mystery in post-modern physics.

The central idea of light being a particle does not exist in absolute relativity or in post-modern physics. We have by this remarkable insight that light travels at a constant speed outside the atom but accelerates inside the atom resolve the paradoxical nature of light.

CEX.IO

Now, the dependence of the energy of ‘knocked out’ electrons on the frequency of light according to quantum mechanics holds in another profound way in absolute relativity. In absolute relativity, what increases is the force impacted on the free electrons.

Any change in frequency of light outside the atom or as perceived by the experimenter results in a change in the acceleration of light inside the atom, thus increasing the force impressed on the knocked out electrons.

You must understand today that the crucial underlying reason why light is emitted from the atom with different frequencies is because of the different accelerations or speeds light possesses inside the atom. This is very crucial, and I will elaborate more on this when we discuss the true interpretation of the emission of light from the atom.

Furthermore, the energy the knocked out electrons possess is 5-energy Ea in J / s 2 and not 4-energy E in Joules as both quantum mechanics and special relativity suppose. This newly revealed energy is the explicit nature of dark energy which pervades the universe, and as we shall discuss soon, it the unique energy responsible for the stability of the atom.

Also, increasing the intensity of the light wave is like spreading the energy of light to a wider or deeper area which results in the more emissions of knocked out electrons. Intensity of the light wave is important for true understanding, but not as the frequency dependence of the photoelectric effect.

Author’s Note: The crucial reason why electrons are knocked out of the atom by light at a critical energy or work function would be elucidated when I talk about quantization and the emission of light. Watch out for this article, and for a start you can read this article.

Criticizing the Modern Interpretation of the Photoelectric Effect

Every of our problem today in understanding the atomic world stems from the flawed interpretation of the photoelectric effect by quantum mechanics. We have to once again revisit the foundation of quantum mechanics, and in fact modern physics, to correct these wrong premises that today hinder us from progressing in our understanding of the universe.

Quantum mechanics has caused us to accept regrettably that light behaves like a wave and also like a particle. This is a very wrong perspective of the nature of light. Light behaves only as a wave, and as a wave it carries different associated physical quantities outside and inside the atom. This insight exposes the true interpretation of the photoelectric effect.

This problem is connected to the unification of science, and by this new insight concerning light physics has been unified. We have to relegate quantum mechanics as just an aspect of relative science needed for arithmetical analysis of atomic phenomena and practical purpose, but not as the background for the true understanding of the atomic world. There is a difference.

So, if you observe closely the modern interpretation of the photo-electric effect according to special relativity, you would realize that special relativity informs us that light behaves like a wave and like a particle while it maintains the associated physical quantities of 4-energy and 4-momentum.

But by observing the post-modern interpretation the photo-electric effect according to absolute relativity, you would realize that absolute relativity informs us that light behaves only like a wave while it doesn’t maintain the associated physical quantities of 4-energy and 4-momentum under all conditions. It carries 4-energy and 4-momentum outside the atom, but inside the atom, it carries 5-energy and force.    

Special relativity only informs us that light carries 4-energy E in Joules and 4-momentum p whereas light also carries 5-energy Joules / second 2 and force of which we are not told in special relativity. This is why I have criticized special relativity for its incompleteness.

Every problem we confront today in the unification of science is due to the inherent flaws in special relativity which have been resolved in Echa and Science. 

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Modern physics would inappropriately and non-satisfyingly like us to think that light behaves like a wave, then at some conditions or boundaries it becomes a particle, but post-modern physics would like you to think that light behaves like a wave in all conditions and at all boundaries. This resolves the entire mystery of the atomic world.

Post-modern physics does not only present the new options for understanding physics, but it also shows us the way to the unified field. It exposes to us in this great age that has come, the true nature of the universe which has been hidden in other ages.  

Summary

This great and insightful article has exposed to you the true interpretation of the photo-electric effect. It informs you that light is able to knock out electrons from the atom because it carries force inside the atom, and not because it is a particle of any kind, which is contrary to the explanation proposed by quantum mechanics.

Light maintains its wave nature outside and inside the atom, but it changes its associated physical quantity from a momentum carrying wave outside the atom to a force carrying wave inside the atom. This is the true understanding of the photoelectric effect.

The corpuscular behavior of light, however convincing it might seem on the surface, is not underlyingly the true behavior of light. Light behaves like a wave under all conditions and it only changes its associated physical quantity as elucidated in this article.

Listen, if light does not carry force as a wave, then there is no other possible way it can knock out electrons from the atom during photoelectricity. No other possible way.  

Keep questioning,             

-Echa

References

[1] M. V. Echa, 2017. THE THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE: Absolute Relativity 



M. V. Echa

M. V. Echa

My message is the universe, my truth is the universe, and this blog contains all you need to know about the universe, from the true nature of reality to the long-sought unity of the cosmos — which is the big picture!