Subtitle: Reclassifying the Myriad Particles in the Standard Model
In the standard model, we have a myriad number of particles, in which most of them are grouped as elementary particles, while others are grouped as composite particles. Elementary particles are particles without sub-structure, while composite particles are particles with sub-structure.
Now, with this “zoo” of particles, scientists are at loss about what their existence really mean for physics. So, the intent of this article is to show you the true, hidden essence of these particles and what their existence mean for particle physics.
I want you to take note that this article seeks to reclassify the particles of physics based on the post-modern description of the nature of particle interactions and the nature of mass, and I want to begin with a short history of how the first three elementary particles were discovered in physics.
The end of the 19th century saw the birth of man’s research into the nature of the atom. The first major discovery from this research was the discovery of a particle called the electron, and it was discovered by a scientist named Sir J. J. Thompson in 1897.
Sir J. J. Thompson made this discovery when he studied the nature of “cathode rays” by investigating their electrical and magnetic interactions. He was able to determine the charge and mass of these rays, and he proposed that the particles that constitute these rays were a major constituent of atoms.
Thus, Sir J. J. Thompson research led to the discovery of “negatively charged” particle called electrons. This would remain the only discovered fundamental particle until 1911, when another experiment was carried out by another famous scientist named Ernest Rutherford.
Ernest Rutherford was investigating radioactivity when he discovered that the nucleus or center of the atom must be made up of densely packed “positively charged” particles which he called protons.
In one of his experiments, Ernest Rutherford bombarded a gold foil with “positively charged” alpha particles, and he realized from the deflection patterns that some of the “positively charged” alpha particles were deflected in opposite directions.
It was this discovery that led him to propose the existence of “positively charged” particles existing at the center of the atom called protons. So, with the discoveries of J. J. Thompson and Ernest Rutherford, physics then had two elementary particles, the electron and the proton.
(Also, not mentioned in this article, is how the discoveries of the electron and the proton were completing our understanding of the structure of the atom. I will discuss this in a future article, and also discuss the post-modern structure of the atom.)
Physics had just two fundamental particles until 1932 when another scientist called James Chadwick was to discover another particle. However, the road to the discovery of this third particle had begun in 1930, when Bothe and Becker bombarded beryllium with alpha particles from a radioactive source.
This bombardment “produced neutral radiation which was penetrating but non-ionizing.” While they thought that this neutral emission was some sort of gamma radiation, further research showed that it was a neutral particle.
It was Chadwick who came along and proved through some other experiments with other atoms other than beryllium that scientists were really dealing with a neutral particle. He then went further to determine the mass of this neutral particle and his calculations showed that this neutral particle had a mass a little above that of the proton.
James Chadwick later called these neutral particles neutrons. The discovery of the electron, the proton and the neutron was a significant discovery in physics, and this article seeks to inform you that the discovery of these three particles culminated our understanding of the constituents of matter.
The import of the assertion that the discovery of these three particles culminated our understanding of the constituents of matter is contrary to the standard model which now includes some other supposed elementary particles to the mix.
The three elementary particles of physics were only to last for a little while, for in the same 1932, another particle called the positron (or anti-electron) was discovered. From then on scientists began to discover more particles like the muons, pions, kaons, taus, gluons, bosons etc.
This zoo of particles supposedly dismissed the possible fundamental role of the first three discovered particles, and even today, some scientists are still wondering what we can do with these myriad number of particles in particle physics.
All these discovered particles without sub-structure have now being grouped as elementary particles, and we also have composite particles which are particles with substructure made up of smaller particles like quarks. I have already taken about this in the first paragraph of this article.
My dissatisfaction is that we have proceeded to give an unwholesome measure of ‘elementarity’ or ‘fundamentality’ to the particles discovered after the discovery of the electron, the proton and the neutron. This is not supposed to be the case.
It is taught in the standard model that there exist some other fundamental particles like the bosons that mediate the interactions between two nucleons. This has led to the proposal of the weak and the strong forces that exist within the nucleus of the atom.
Now, the big question is, are these particles really as elementary as the electron and the proton? No, they are not as fundamental as the electron and the proton, and it is for crucial reasons that I am going to show you in this article.
The principle or would I rather say the doctrine of particle mediation arose from the foundation of modern quantum mechanics which proposes the particle nature of light and which informs us that the interactions between two electrical particles, like an electron and another electron or an electron and a proton, are mediated by photons.
So, from the foundation of modern quantum mechanics, scientists learnt to attribute the interaction of nucleons as being due to the exchange of energetic particles, and these other energetic particles are considered as elementary particles which really exist inside the atom.
This particle based interpretation of particle interactions according to the standard model and which emerged from the foundation of modern quantum mechanics is wrong and should be abolished since even the concept of the photon has been completely abolished by post-modern physics.
There is a new and completely wave based interpretation of particle interactions emerging from the foundation of post-modern quantum mechanics, which I will introduce to you in this article.
It, therefore, implies that if the interactions between nucleons are not mediated by these exotic particles proposed and even discovered by the standard model, then they cease to be fundamental, and this is surprisingly the case.
Before post-modern physics, we had a wrong understanding of how light is able to impress motion on particles, supposing that it is because light consists of a kind of massless particles called photons.
This is not true. I want you to read the article on photoelectricity linked above, so that you will come to understand how light impresses motion on particles without consisting of photons. By abolishing the concept of the photon, our entire understanding of the standard model changes for good.
The zoo of particles discovered in the standard model does not play any role in the stability of the atom or in the interaction between nucleons or subatomic particles. In post-modern physics, particle interactions are mediated only gravi-electromagnetic wave and not any particle of any kind as the standard model would contend.
The gravi-electromagnetic wave is the second non-mechanical wave in the universe after light, and it is responsible for particle interactions inside the atom. This second non-mechanical wave in the universe replaces all the exotic particles purported to be responsible for particle interactions by the standard model (or the quantum field theories).
This realization greatly simplifies physics because it forces us to remove a huge chunk of the standard model from physics which are not related to reality. The fundamental roles attributed to these exotic particles came as a result of our ignorance of the second non-mechanical wave in the universe.
This can no longer continue, if we really hope to unify physics. We must abolish the particle based interpretation of particle interactions according to the standard of the standard model and embrace the wave based interpretation of particle interactions according to post-modern physics.
We must really approach the study of particle interactions as real physicists that understand that particle interactions can only be mediated or governed by non-mechanical waves and not particles of any kind. This has to become a common knowledge in physics.
I do not deny the discoveries of these exotic, short-lived particles, I am however denying the role given to them by the standard model as fundamental particles responsible for intra-atomic interactions and also for the stability of the atom. We have been interpreting wrongly the role played by the exotic particles discovered in our accelerators.
These particles have no fundamental role in post-modern physics with regards to particle interactions inside the atom. So, now, what should we think of these exotic or zoo of particles in the standard model? It’s very simple. We would have to apply the new understanding of matter emerging from post-modern physics.
In post-modern physics, we are realizing that some particles exhibit both rest mass and inertial mass while some other particles exhibit only inertial mass. This simple knowledge is what creates the necessary divide between the fundamental particles and the non-fundamental particles in the universe.
The electron and the proton are fundamental particles because they exhibit both rest mass and inertial mass, while the neutron which shouldn’t be a fundamental particle in the actual sense is also included because it is a distinct component of the electron-proton atom.
However, the neutron shouldn’t be a fundamental particle for the same reason why all the exotic particles discovered after 1932 are not fundamental particles. What do I mean? You know already that both the neutron and these exotic particles are particles with short lives compared to the electron and the proton.
They don’t live long, and the reason why they don’t live long is because they only have inertial mass. These exotic particles with only inertial mass and no rest mass are what we should now refer to as non-fundamental particles.
So, in post-modern physics, we divide particles into two groups, which are fundamental particles which are particles with both rest mass and inertial mass, and non-fundamental particles which are particles with only inertial mass.
The fundamental particles are the electrons, protons and neutrons, while the non-fundamental particles are the muon, pion, kaon, tau, bosons and every other short-lived, exotic particle discovered in our accelerators.
Post-modern physics is giving us a simple, yet encompassing understanding of the nature of particle interactions. Also, by replacing the role played by this zoo of particles with the gravi-electromagnetic wave, we have also eliminated the weak and the strong forces from physics.
It then results that the gravi-electromagnetic force which is a composite of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces is the only fundamental force in the universe. This reclassification of the myriad discovered particles in the standard model greatly simplifies the theory and shows us the way of the unified field.
We had considered these short-lived particles as elementary particles because we did not know that they do not have rest mass but only have inertial mass. They are not as fundamental as the electron and proton which can live forever because they have rest mass.
This discovery is very significant, since it exposes the invalidity of the standard model. The standard model of particle physics had predicted the decay of protons, but till date, such decay has not been discovered and this has made some scientists suggest that the standard model or its concept of supersymmetry might be wrong.
This is obviously the case due to the new insights emerging from post-modern physics. We had erroneously proceeded to predict the decay of the proton because we thought the proton and other discovered particles that decay can be grouped in the same class. No, they cannot. Please read the article below:
We did not know that in relation to mass, the proton possessing rest mass cannot decay like these other particles that possess only inertial mass. This simple insight forces us to question what we know about the universe through the standard model, and to be frank with you, our current picture of the universe through the standard model is flawed.
I honestly wish that we can preserve the standard model considering that a lot of effort has been put by great and noble scientists to build the theory, but we really can’t preserve the standard model and other quantum field theories because they are flawed theories of the cosmos.
The electron, the proton and the neutron make up the atom and their basic interactions are governed by only one wave, which is the gravi-electromagnetic wave (or the G-wave). No other particle exists inside the atom beyond this three particles, and no other force field, whether the weak force or the strong force, mediate their interactions except the G-wave.
Post-modern physics is revealing to us how only the electron, the proton and the neutron exist inside the atom, and that the other discovered particles have no fundamental role whatsoever in the interactions of these three particles inside the atom. This obviously dismisses the weak and the strong forces.
These exotic particles are just particles without rest mass just like the neutron, and I have written this article to simply inform you about the true fundamental particles in the universe and also about the non-fundamental particles. And the post-modern classification of particles is based on the post-modern, wave based interpretation of particle interactions and on the nature of mass.
So, let’s outline the three fundamental particles that make up the atom, all of which are particles that possess both rest mass and inertial mass except the neutron which is only listed because it truly exists inside the atom:
- The electron
- The proton
- The neutron
Let’s also list the non-fundamental particles, all of which are particles that possess only inertial mass and do not exist inside the atom or play any fundamental role in particle interactions:
- The muon
- The pion
- The Kaon
- The Tau
Moreso, since the neutron is actually a non-fundamental particle but also a particle that exists inside the atom, you can see it as an intermediate particle between the fundamental and non-fundamental particles. Again, I just included the neutron among the fundamental particles because it occurs naturally in the universe and also exists inside the atom.
This new post-modern classification of particles in the universe is what would propel the progress of particle physics and also steer us in a new direction which I will discuss in a future article. Also, you can learn about it in Absolute Relativity.
The post-modern classification of particles in the universe is forcing us to re-identify the three fundamental particles in the universe and to no longer trail the part that made us think of any other fundamental particle beyond the electron, the proton and the neutron.
This article explicitly informs you that most of the discovered particles of the standard model are not fundamental particles for two reasons. The first reason is that they play no major role in particle interactions because particle interactions are mediated by gravi-electromagnetic wave, and the second reason is that these particles do not possess rest mass.
The electron, proton and neutron remain the only three fundamental particles in the universe. All other particles do not exist inside the atom and cannot be said to be fundamental in any possible way.
Until next time.
– M. V. Echa