Another experiment which stands beside the Michelson-Morley experiment as one of the two greatest experiments in science is the Pisa experiment.
And funny enough, the setups of these two experiments are not as sophisticated as the setups of most of the experiments we perform today in physics, but I still confirm them as the two greatest experiments in scientific history because they hold in their results the mystery of the universe.
The problem so far is that they have not been rightly interpreted or explained. This is why I have decided to dedicate two separate articles to discuss the true post-modern interpretation of these experiments.
They are very simple experiments and the simpler experiment between both of them is the Pisa experiment which I want to discuss specifically in this scientific article.
The Pisa experiment was first performed by Galileo Galilee between 1589 – 1592 on the leaning tower in Pisa, Italy. So, it was a series of experiments that were aimed at uncovering how bodies with different masses responded to free fall under the influence of gravity.
The leaning tower in Pisa, Italy, where Galileo performed his series of experiments to test how different bodies undergo free fall.
Galileo set up the Pisa experiment to test the old Aristotelian theory or idea about how bodies fall. According to Aristotle, bodies of different masses undergo free fall differently, such that a body of greater mass should fall faster than another body of lesser mass.
This simple idea seemed so true and intuitive until Galileo tested it at Pisa by dropping two balls of different masses from the top of the leaning tower. The result was that the two balls fell to the ground at the same time.
It was as though they have the same masses even though they didn’t. Galileo must have been surprised by this result and must have wondered, what is it about free fall that makes it independent of mass?
The entity that causes free fall in the universe would later after Aristotle be referred to as gravity. So, concerning the Pisa experiment we are asking: how is it that gravity can cause two bodies of different masses to undergo the same acceleration independent of their masses?
The above question is what the Pisa experiment poses to us and it is another form of the question: what is gravity?
Now, just as the Michelson-Morley experiment shows us that the speed of light is constant because light is a limit of inertia, so also is the free fall acceleration of bodies of different masses constant because gravity is also a limit of inertia.
What we called free fall acceleration g in classical physics existed because gravity is a limit of inertia for all non-inertial reference frames.
I informed you that light is a limit of inertia for all uniform frames with respect to uniform rest which is the form of rest that applies to uniform frames. Now, gravity is a limit of inertia for all accelerated frames with respect to accelerated rest.
Both uniform rest and accelerated rest are the two forms of rest in the universe and because they have the essence of inertia attached to them, we can say that they are the rest frames of the universe.
This is despite the fact that both uniform rest and accelerated rest inertia are exhibitions of zero inertia. This zero inertia is still real in the universe.
So, gravity is a limit of inertia for all accelerating bodies and relative to accelerated rest. This is why two bodies of different masses fall together towards the ground in a uniform gravitational field. They are both experiencing the effects of a limit of accelerated motion which is gravity.
You really have to understand this, and it goes further. The discovery of the essence of gravity as a limit of inertia is what has led to the discovery of what is called the acceleration of gravity.
This is just as we have always had what is called the speed of light, so we now have what is called the acceleration of gravity. We never attached any sort of motion or quantity to gravity itself like we did for light and this was a conceptual error that plagued fundamental science and our interpretation of the Pisa experiment.
But this is no longer the case as we now understand that gravity is a limit of inertia for all non-inertial reference frames. Also, there is something obviously beautiful and unique about gravity in how it influences free fall.
In the Michelson-Morley experiment, we can talk about why the speed of light is constant but not how it can cause free fall. This is because the test for the constancy of the speed of light is different from the test for the acceleration of gravity.
This is why the Pisa experiment importantly informs us that in a uniform gravitational field, the acceleration of gravity is constant and not really the free-fall acceleration of bodies. I want you to take note of this.
So, we have to make the distinction between the free-fall acceleration of bodies during the Pisa experiment and the acceleration of gravity itself. The constancy of the free-fall acceleration of bodies is a direct result of the constancy of the acceleration of gravity.
In the Pisa experiment, gravity possessing the quantity of acceleration is thus able to be tested by how it influences motion or can cause the acceleration of bodies. But in the Michelson-Morley experiment, light possessing constant speed and not acceleration cannot be tested by how it influences or can cause the acceleration of bodies.
This is the major distinction and the reason for the different setups of the Pisa experiment and the Michelson-Morley experiment.
Furthermore, one may wonder why we haven’t observed the acceleration of gravity itself but only the acceleration of bodies. This is the same reason why gravity has been unobservable and it is because unlike light that has an independent existence, gravity only exists as a component of the superluminal gravi-electromagnetic wave.
So, in the Pisa experiment, we are really observing the effects of gravi-electromagnetic wave on bodies even though it is gravity that is in action at a component level.
We have not observed the acceleration of gravity so far because there is no such thing as the independent existence of gravity; gravity only acts as a component of the superluminal gravi-electromagnetic wave.
This shows you the conceptual difference between how we study gravity in post-modern physics and how we studied it in classical and modern physics.
In classical and modern physics, gravity is studied as an independent entity, though this method is flawed; but in post-modern physics, gravity is studied as a component of the gravi-electromagnetic wave. This is why we cannot talk about the independent manifestation and observation of gravity just like light.
The Pisa experiment is the observation of the effects of the acceleration of gravity on bodies, therefore, we have been studying the effects of gravity and not really gravity which is a component of gravi-electromagnetic wave.
Not being able to make this distinction will lead us to the wrong understanding of the Pisa experiment and the wider universe.
So, the Pisa experiment is at a causal level asking us: why is the acceleration of gravity the same for two bodies of different masses and not why are the free fall accelerations of two bodies of different masses the same?
Therefore, the new post-modern fact that gravity is a limit of inertia is the presented answer to the former question and not to the latter question which is a question of effect and not of cause.
You must understand how post-modern physics changes and answers the question posed by the Pisa experiment unless you will not understand this article and the nature of gravity (as a component of gravi-electromagnetic wave).
Bodies of different masses now free fall with the same acceleration because the acceleration of gravity is constant and which is underlyingly due to the fact that gravity is a limit of inertia.
The above statement is the true and extensive interpretation of the Pisa experiment that I want you to have from this article. Also, remember what I told about how the inertia of gravy as a limit is that relative to accelerated rest.
The importance of accelerated rest for the Pisa experiment and for the understanding of gravity is that the problem of the aether that confronted the Michelson-Morley experiment would also have confronted the Pisa experiment.
Assuming that we knew and could observe the acceleration of gravity, we would have asked ourselves: relative to what is the acceleration of gravity determined just as we asked ourselves relative to what is the speed of light determined?
Therefore, we would have proposed a kind of classical aether for gravity and another for light or probably proposed that they are both moving in the same kind of aether. The classical aether is a broad concept that would have applied to gravity if we had known about the acceleration of gravity itself.
But now post-modern physics informs us that light moves relative to uniform rest and not relative to the classical aether and also informs us that gravity moves relative to accelerated rest and not relative to any supposable classical aether.
This is supported by the understanding that both forms of rest are zero limits of inertia relative to which we talk about the proportions of the inertias of light and gravity. I want you to get the Treatise, all you need to know about this new picture of the universe can be found there as I cannot possibly exhaust it all in this article.
In addition, just as the principle of inertia is associated with the interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment, so is another revolutionary principle associated with the interpretation of the Pisa experiment.
This principle associated with the Pisa experiment is the principle of non-inertia. This principle is needed so that we can explain why bodies under free fall do not sense their motion, and according to post-modern physics, this is because their accelerated motion is indistinguishable from a form of rest called accelerated rest.
So, the principle of non-inertia which informs us that accelerated rest and accelerated motion are indistinguishable is important for understanding the Pisa experiment and the free fall of bodies.
The free fall of bodies during the Pisa experiment is not devoid of any governing principle. This is a fundamental understanding you must have about the Pisa experiment.
Just as the Michelson-Morley experiment is explained in defence of the principle of inertia, so is the Pisa experiment explained in defence of the principle of non-inertia.
Also, the acceleration of gravity is constant for any two bodies in a uniform gravitational field not so that these two bodies won’t be able to determine if they are in accelerated motion or not. Rather, the acceleration of gravity is constant because gravity is a limit of inertia.
The principle of non-inertia just like the principle of inertia is a principle of sensational equality and not of true equality. That is, bodies in accelerated motion under free fall carry inertia, but the principle of non-inertia simply makes their inertia insensible.
The principle of non-inertia is a principle that applies to accelerated motion just as the principle of inertia applies to uniform motion!
Now, I want you to study and compare both of my articles on the Michelson-Morley experiment and this one on the Pisa experiment and find the important correlations in the post-modern interpretations of these experiments.
These correlations will show you how light and gravity are related and also how uniform frames and accelerated frames are related. In fact, these correlations will reveal to you a glimpse of the long-sought unity of all things!
So, just like the post-modern interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment, the post-modern interpretation of the Pisa experiment informs us of these three things about gravity and about the universe:
- Accelerated rest is absolute.
- The supposable classical aether does not exist.
- Gravity is a limit of inertia.
The conclusions from the post-modern interpretation of the Pisa experiment are similar to those for the post-modern interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment.
And from above, we are rightly and summarily informed that bodies free fall with constant acceleration due to the preceding constant acceleration of gravity.
So, the complete interpretation of the Pisa experiment is that accelerated rest is absolute and that gravity is a limit of inertia, taking note that the supposable classical aether does not exist.
Until next time,
I will be here.
– M. V. Echa
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