# Post-modern Physics and the Two Inverse Square Laws

Table of Contents

**Introduction **

I want to discuss something absolutely fundamental in this article, and which is about the relationship between post-modern physics and the two inverse square laws. This has been a concern for me since I started to write *The Theory of the Universe*.

I found out that I could describe the universe without the interpretational inputs of classical and modern physics, except that I could not do away with the two inverse square laws. They are two vital aspects of classical physics still found in the post-modern theory of the cosmos.

However, they now have a different justification from their classical justification. And it is these two justifications, the classical and post-modern justifications, of the two inverse square laws among other related things that I want to discuss with you in this article.

Before I proceed, I take that you are already familiar with the two inverse square laws, which are Newton’s law of gravitational interaction and Coulomb’s law of electromagnetic interaction.

**The Mathematical Justification of the Inverse Square Law **

Both laws are related to the reciprocal of the square of radial distance or space. This is why we call them inverse square laws. The origin of the gravitational inverse square law goes back to Newton, and according to some controversial accounts, it is said that Robert Hooke had suggested to Newton that gravity may be a force or phenomenon that obeys the inverse square law.

Whether this is true or not, because Newton denied it and they had very bitter arguments, what is more important to us in this article is that Newton gave us the first complete **mathematical justification** of the inverse square law.

Beyond the contributions of his predecessors and contemporaries, Newton gave us the most generalised form of the gravitational inverse square law as it applies to the Earth and to other heavenly bodies.

The generalized form of the inverse square law which took into account the mass of bodies became an important result of the unification of terrestrial and celestial mechanics, which was Newton’s greatest contribution to physics.

The gravitational inverse square law was the culmination of Newton’s research into the relationship between Galileo findings and Kepler’s laws of motion, especially his third law. Newton gave us what I now call the mathematical justification of the inverse square law. You will understand the mathematical justification of the inverse square law better in the next section.

**The Interpretational Justification of the Inverse Square Law **

Now, in post-modern physics, we find the two inverse square laws of gravitational and electromagnetic interactions placed together in a unified framework called absolute relativity.

This is particularly important because Newton gave us a **mathematical justification** of the inverse square law in order to unify terrestrial and celestial mechanics, and now post-modern physics is giving us what I call the **interpretational justification** of the inverse square law in order to unify micro and macro physics.

The interpretational justification of the inverse square law becomes necessary because of a loophole in Newton’s description of gravity. Newton failed to inform us of how gravity really works in the universe. He only presented a mathematical description of gravity that harmonized with experimental facts.

This is why Newton’s justification of the inverse square law is of a purely mathematical kind since the operational principle of gravity is missing in his theory. So, when we can explain the operational principle of gravity, we will find another subtle justification of the inverse square law which is its interpretational justification. This is what post-modern physics has accomplished.

So, what is post-modern physics informing us about the interpretational justification of the inverse square law? Post-modern physics is informing us that the inverse square law arises because of the operation of gravi-electromagnetic wave.

I want you to take note of what is happening. Newton had sought to explain how gravity really works and communicates its effects in the universe. But now post-modern physics is informing us that such independent operation of gravity does not exist in the cosmos.

Post-modern physics is informing us that what really works and communicates its effects on all heavenly bodies in the universe is gravi-electromagnetic wave and not gravity.

Now, considering the fact that Newton placed the inverse square law within a theory that sought to describe gravity and not gravi-electromagnetic wave, it becomes necessary to find another justification for placing the inverse square law within a theory that describes gravi-electromagnetic wave and not gravity.

Post-modern physics is informing us that the two inverse square laws emerge from the important aspect of physics called gravi-electromagnetism. Gravi-electromagnetism is a branch or aspect of post-modern physics that deals with the study of gravi-electromagnetic wave which is the second non-mechanical wave in the universe.

The two inverse square laws emerge from the important aspect of physics called gravi-electromagnetism. Click To TweetIt is in gravi-electromagnetism that we find the interpretational justification of the inverse square laws. This interpretational justification is subtle and intuitive, unlike the mathematical justification which is obvious and rigorous.

In the interpretational justification of the inverse square law, we find the harmony between the fact that gravi-electromagnetic wave satisfies orthogonality as a proof of why its interaction and effects in the universe follow the inverse square law. This orthogonality in post-modern physics is referred to as gravi-electromagnetic orthogonality.

It is an experiential form of the Pythagoras theorem, and it is the interpretational justification for the inverse square law for both gravitational and electromagnetic interactions which are just aspects of gravi-electromagnetism.

So, Newton in describing gravity, which he didn’t know is a component of gravi-electromagnetic wave, presented to us the mathematical justification of the inverse square law, while post-modern physics in describing gravi-electromagnetic wave, presents to us the interpretational justification of the inverse square law. I want you to make these necessary connections.

And in the interpretational justification of the inverse square law, the inverse square law is a natural consequence of gravi-electromagnetic orthogonality. Gravi-electromagnetism is responsible for the inverse square law and not gravity.

The inverse square law is a natural consequence of gravi-electromagnetic orthogonality.Click To TweetNow, post-modern physics goes even further. Post-modern physics does not only describe how the inverse square law is a natural consequence of gravi-electromagnetism, it also places the inverse square law within a fundamental principle called the principle of non-inertia. The principle of non-inertia is the governing principle for all gravi-electromagnetic interactions in the universe.

The heavenly bodies which are accelerating according to the inverse square law are governed by the principle of non-inertia. The interpretational justification of the inverse square law makes up completely for the loopholes in Newton’s theory which does not provide us with any fundamental principle behind the inverse square law.

Also, it may seem as though I am talking only about Newton’s inverse square law, no, the same applies to Coulomb’s law. Both inverse square laws have become unified and placed together within the framework of gravi-electromagnetism.

Both Newton’s and Coulomb’s inverse square laws are the two aspects of gravi-electromagnetism now connected by gravi-electromagnetic orthogonality, or in general, the orthogonality principle. And both have interpretational justification in post-modern physics and are now found on the newly discovered absolute principle of non-inertia.

Gravi-electromagnetism is the encompassing mechanism for the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions which Newton and Coulomb sought to capture in their formerly disjointed approach.

It is in bringing these two aspects of gravi-electromagnetism that we discover the interpretational justification of the inverse square law. Have this understanding as we proceed to another crucial part of this article.

**The Qualitative Nature of the Inverse Square Law **

Now, in classical physics, we find a solely quantitative elucidation of the inverse square law for both gravitational and electrical interactions. There is no qualitative description whatsoever of the inverse square law.

This is very important because in post-modern physics we have been able to unify the concept of force as it applies to the two inverse square laws with relativity in a purely Euclidean geometrical framework.

Einstein in general relativity had incorporated the inverse square law of gravitational interaction within a Riemannian geometrical framework. Einstein could not have achieved the simpler and more encompassing version of this unification between force and relativity based on a purely Euclidean geometrical framework because of the solely quantitative nature of the inverse square law in his theory.

It is when we understand the qualitative nature of the inverse square laws or forces that we see how they can be incorporated within a Euclidean relativistic framework. Let me become more specific.

In the universe, there are two forms of space, and as such, one must ask, in which form of space does the inverse square law hold? The two forms of space are uniform space and accelerated space, and obviously, the inverse square law holds in accelerated space since it is the space that carries gravi-electromagnetic wave and all accelerating bodies in the universe.

The relationship between motion and the two forms of space is what underlies the qualitative nature of the inverse square law. It is because of this that in post-modern physics the inverse square law takes a mathematical form that exhibits both quantity and quality.

Furthermore, the essence of force changes. The solely quantitative **relative force** that the inverse square law represents in classical physics is replaced by a quantitative and qualitative **absolute force** that the inverse square law represents in post-modern physics.

So, in post-modern physics, the inverse square laws of gravity and electromagnetism are related to absolute force and not relative force. And when we bring these two forces together, gravitational force and electromagnetic force, we get the super force called gravi-electromagnetic force, since light and gravity are inseparable components of gravi-electromagnetic wave.

The inverse square laws of gravity and electromagnetism are related to absolute force and not relative force. Click To TweetLet’s begin with the gravitational force which in post-modern physics is a component of the encompassing gravi-electromagnetic force. Below is the mathematical depiction of the inverse square law for gravity in post-modern physics:

Looking at the above, the inverse square law for gravity does not seem any different from the Newtonian representation. This is not entirely true. In post-modern physics, the delta symbol shown in the denominator above is used to denote accelerated space or accelerated time, as the case may be.

And as shown above, the radial space between a larger mass **M** and a smaller mass **m** is accelerated space, which I informed you that it is the form of space in which all accelerating bodies move in the universe.

Pixabay

Also, mass in the above equation has a different meaning from its classical description. In the above, mass is the gravi-electromagnetic content of a body and not the content of matter in a body as defined by classical physics.

So, what do all these mean? Simple. The above is the quantitative and qualitative depiction of the inverse square law for gravity that is absent in classical physics or in the Newtonian description. And because of this completion, the above is **absolute gravitational force** of post-modern physics and not the **relative gravitational force** of classical physics.

I want you to really understand this. The classical and post-modern forms of the inverse square law for gravity are quantitatively (or mathematically) similar, but the post-modern form has qualitative aspects not represented in the classical form of the equation.

The new descriptions of space and mass above are the qualitative aspects of the inverse square law that are absolutely necessary for us to understand how the universe works.

It is this qualitative understanding of the inverse square that has enabled us to unify it with relativity in a purely Euclidean geometrical framework against general relativity which unified the inverse square law with Riemannian relativity. This new approach is the true way of the unified field.

Now, the same applies to the electromagnetic inverse square law as presented by Coulomb, and which is depicted in post-modern physics as,

The same qualitative description of space applies to the above inverse square law for electromagnetism. But charge as applied above, and in post-modern physics, is defined as the electromagnetic content of a particle or body. The above is the **absolute electromagnetic force** of post-modern physics and not the **relative electromagnetic force** of classical physics.

It should become common knowledge in post-modern physics, that when you consider only the quantitative aspects of force, then you are describing relative force; but when you consider both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of force, then you are describing absolute force.

**Crucial Discussion **

In post-modern physics, the absolute form of the inverse square law is applied just as the relative form of the inverse square law is applied. I want you to understand that post-modern physics reveals to us the qualitative nature of the inverse square law.

Post-modern physics reveals to us the qualitative nature of the inverse square law.Click To TweetAnd in fact, the encompassing achievement of post-modern physics is that it reveals to us the qualitative nature of the universe. This is what has been missing in other eras of physics! Physics had been solely quantitative, an entire aspect of the cosmos has been missing in physics.

It is this abysmal condition that had precipitated the crisis in physics and the unification problem. Post-modern physics has come to complete physics. This new understanding of the inverse square law and its causal relationship with gravi-electromagnetism will go a long way in assisting practical science in this post-modern era.

So, how can we summarize this article? This article summarily informs us that according to the interpretational justification of the inverse square law, the inverse square law is both quantitative and qualitative and that it arises due to the orthogonal operation of gravi-electromagnetic wave.

Therefore, the interpretational justification of the inverse square law alongside its mathematical justification further consolidates the inverse square law as an inviolable law of the universe.

Until next time.

– M. V. Echa