Subtitle: Generalizing Einstein’s Two Simple Theses
The Central Question: What is dark energy the energy of?
“Dark energy is perhaps the biggest mystery in physics.”
One of the greatest mysteries of today’s science is dark energy. “Dark energy was discovered in 1998 by two teams of astronomers, who measured light coming from exploding stars called Type IA supernovae, known as “standard candles” for their consistent brightness.
The striking result was that distant supernovae were dimmer (farther away) than they would be in a universe that was slowing down. The result suggested that the expansion of the universe was accelerating.
And the teams proposed that something called dark energy could be driving this acceleration. This acceleration, it is thought, began about 5 billion years ago. That was the first stand-alone evidence to support the idea of dark energy.”
Dark energy has been discovered to make up about 74% of our universe, while other components are dark matter and visible matter.
The currently accepted description of dark energy is that it fits Einstein cosmological constant which he introduced to account for the observable static or stable nature of the universe.
However, when Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding and not stable, Einstein regretted introducing the cosmological constant and he referred to it as his greatest blunder. Now, as purported by many astronomers, this blunder of Einstein is our best component for describing dark energy, of which its nature has not been successfully unravelled.
But what is the nature of dark energy? In fact, to better present the question: what is dark energy the energy of? This is how to appropriately set the question. I have thought of how best to expose the true nature of dark energy to you and I have decided that we would have to look historically at why we cannot unravel the mystery of dark energy.
What have we really missed in the early 20th-century scientific revolution that has caused us today not to be able to understand dark energy? What discovery was made in 1998 by a team of arduous astronomers? You will know the answers to these questions in this scientific article and more in this blog.
Remember, Echa and Science is the climax and final completion of the 20th-century scientific revolution. So, in this blog, I will give you hindsight perspective as to why we have failed to know the true nature of dark energy since it was discovered and why our current theories cannot help us.
Dark energy is a mystery today because of a fatal flaw in Einstein’s extension of special relativity to general relativity. Einstein had gone ahead to revolutionize physics by his paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” which is popularly called special relativity.
The paper on special relativity in hindsight was the only scientific paper of the 20th century that set the background for our departure from Newtonian mechanics which had failed to account for the discoveries about the nature of light and quantum mechanics.
Einstein’s relativity paper has certain similarities to Lorentz and Poincaré papers on relativity, however, Einstein’s own paper showed us something about the universe which other prior versions of relativity didn’t.
Albert Einstein in 1921
Einstein special relativity accomplished two remarkable feats when he exposed a crucial oversight hidden in Newton’s three laws of motion. What was this crucial oversight hidden in Newton’s laws and how did Einstein accomplish these feats? He accomplished these feats when he founded the theory of special relativity on two “deceptively simple” theses.
The two theses state that:
Thesis 1: The laws of physics are the same for all reference frames.
Thesis 2: The speed of light is constant.
In fact, by these two simple theses, Einstein accomplished two revolutionary feats. I will tell you what they are. This is so that you would come to understand the nature of dark energy from core flaws buried in scientific history. Einstein special relativity was revolutionary in so many ways that even Einstein himself could not have imagined.
Let’s begin with the first accomplishment of special relativity:
The First Accomplishment
In the Principia, Newton had proceeded to set the laws of motion only as they apply independently to bodies. He did not make any vital connection between the motion of bodies and the motion of either light or gravity.
It took Einstein to show us how uniformly moving bodies are connected to the motion of light by these two simple theses above. The connection between the relative motion of bodies and the absolute motion of fundamental entities like light in the universe is the cornerstone of relativity which sets us on the path away from Newtonian laws.
This important step taken by Einstein was a big leap which gave us the revolution of the early twentieth century.
The Second Accomplishment
The second accomplishment of special relativity is quite a popular one, but it has not been properly and duly noted because we are more concerned with the supposed fact that Einstein’s special relativity abolished the existence of the legendary aether.
The second accomplishment of Einstein’s special relativity is the assertion of the independent existence of light. This is of historical importance, for just as Newton had held on to the existence of independent absolute space, so did Einstein also hold on to the independent existence of light.
These two great scientists were unwittingly setting the background for post-modern physics. Now, this new emphasis on the independent existence of light special relativity informs us about does not entirely do away with the notion of the aether. It still exists but in a fundamentally different way which does not render Einstein’s thesis invalid.
I will come back to this shortly. However, I want you to know that Einstein’s recognition of the independent existence of light and not as some vibration of the aether of classical physics is a great accomplishment which is of vital importance even in post-modern physics.
Now, when Einstein wanted to extend special relativity to general relativity, he did not apply the method above as he had for special relativity. The hidden mystery of the cosmos is that accelerated frames are not really different from uniform frames. Einstein could still have applied two similar and simple theses as above to accelerated frames but with a slight modification.
What is this modification? Listen, just as Einstein when describing the relativity of uniform frames had by two simple theses shown the connection between uniformly moving bodies and the electromagnetic wave, for accelerating bodies, all he simply would have done is to show the connection between accelerated frames and another non-mechanical wave just like light in the universe.
This method which Einstein had established in special relativity is as I have said the cornerstone of relativity for all reference frames. This new non-mechanical wave which is connected to the accelerated motion of bodies is gravi-electromagnetic wave. So, dark energy is simply the energy of gravi-electromagnetic wave.
I want you to have this basic understanding of the universe. There are two non-mechanical waves in the universe that govern the two forms of motion in the universe, uniform motion and accelerated motion.
So, if I proceed to present the general form of the simple theses of Albert Einstein, we would have these two simple theses:
Thesis 1: The laws of physics are the same for all reference frames, both uniform and accelerated frames.
Thesis 2: There are two non-mechanical waves in the universe, light and gravi-electromagnetic wave.
The first thesis generalizes Einstein’s first thesis to all reference frames, while the second thesis extends Einstein’s second thesis by showing us that there are two non-mechanical waves in the universe and not light alone.
These simple theses would show you where dark energy comes from. We have really been missing something huge all this while. Dark energy is not just some mysterious form of energy, it is the evidence that a huge part of physics is missing in our current understanding of the universe.
The laws of physics are the same for all reference frames because there are two non-mechanical waves in the universe and not one. You must understand this. In this blog, I will further show you the implications of these two simple theses above which are similar to those of Einstein’s theses in special relativity.
Also, you will learn everything about this in The Theory of the Universe. I want you to get your own copy of this treatise. It is the most important scientific paper in scientific history, for it lays the foundation for the true understanding of the universe.
Light governs uniform motion while gravi-electromagnetic wave governs accelerated motion. This is why the astronomers that discovered dark energy found out that it is an accelerating energy that causes the expansion of the universe.
What the astronomers that discovered dark energy discovered is one of the most fundamental and historical discoveries in all of science. They discovered gravi-electromagnetic wave which is the second non-mechanical wave in the universe, of which they now need to be appropriately applauded by the scientific community and the world.
The gravi-electromagnetic wave which is the second non-mechanical wave in the universe restores, howbeit in a different manner, the concept of the aether. In fact, the gravi-electromagnetic wave is the sea from which matter was formed during creation, it is the wave of creation.
This is why it is more predominant than the electromagnetic wave, and remember all the bodies in the universe are accelerating, both the heavenly bodies and the atomic bodies.
It is the new aether of post-modern physics and because it moves in its own unique space which is different from the space light moves, its existence does not invalidate Einstein’s assertion of the independent existence of light. I have talked about this in some of my articles.
Just as Albert Einstein had by his 1905 paper on special relativity set the foundation for the understanding of electrodynamics, so the proper extension of special relativity should have set the foundation for gravi-electrodynamics. Gravi-electrodynamics and not general relativity is the conceptual framework for understanding dark energy.
In other words, Einstein and other scientific revolutionaries of the early 20th century should have shown us how the relative motion of accelerated frames is related to the absolute motion of gravi-electromagnetic wave, just as they had shown us how the relative motion of uniform frames is related to the absolute motion of electromagnetic wave.
This great and noble task now falls on us, and in this new era, we shall firmly establish two powerful frameworks, electrodynamics and gravi-electrodynamics, which are respectively needed to investigate uniform and accelerated frames.
This is why we require only Euclidean geometry to understand both frames. The two non-mechanical waves follow Euclidean laws of geometry, however, in a deeper and more profound way.
Both uniform and accelerated frames are described by Euclidean geometry because of the primary geometrical principles of the two non-mechanical waves in the universe. The existence of dark energy, therefore, brings us to the new understanding that there is another non-mechanical wave in the universe, and it is the gravi-electromagnetic wave.
I want you to see the connection between the two forms of relative motion of bodies and the absolute motion of the two non-mechanical waves in the universe. The entire principle of reality and the mystery of the unified field are demystified by this insight.
Absolute relativity captures the two simple generalized theses that I have just shown you, and it does so in a manner that appropriately applies the new, post-modern and important laws of motion in both the ponderable and electrical universes. I will discuss these laws soon.
So, in post-modern physics, we are beginning to understand how the laws of physics apply to all reference frames under the new realization of the two non-mechanical waves in the universe. This approach as you can already see is fundamentally different from the approach of modern physics.
If Einstein had proceeded to describe accelerated frames following his method for special relativity as I have just discussed, then dark energy will not be a mystery today, and in fact, there would have been no need for general relativity, there would be no quantum mechanics, and there would have been no crisis in physics.
– M. V. Echa
The article below is related to this article and it will further expose to you the true nature of dark energy which simply is gravi-electromagnetic energy.